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高考定语从句最全面系统详细讲解           ★★★
高考定语从句最全面系统详细讲解
作者:佚名 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2016/11/26 16:16:51

一、定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。汉语中常用‘……的’表示。定语主要由形容词担任。此外名词、代词、数词、副词、介词短语以及动词不定式(短语)、分词也可以做定语。
a beautiful city;
a bag full of money.
注意:汉语的定语无论多长都放在被修饰词的前面,而英语中的定语则不然,是一个词时,放在被修饰词的前面,若是两个以上的词组、短语或从句则放在被修饰词的后面,
 his father; thirty women  teachers ;
the girl in red.  the boy from America
Our monitor is  always the first student to enter the
classroom.
falling leaves;  fallen leaves;
the boy playing basketball;
 the book bought by my  mother;
a reading room; a  swimming pool
He is the man who  you are looking for.

 
 
二、定义及相关术语
 
 
1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。
2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。
3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词, 关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等;关系代词在定语从句中可以代替先行词充当主语、宾语或表语。
    关系副词有when, where, why.
1. I have an apple. An apple is red.
I have an apple that/which is red.
              先行词         关系代词
2.I like some friends. Some friends like sports.
I like friends who like  sports.    
                   ↑              ↑
 
              先行词     关系代词
3.I like music. The music is quiet.
I like music that/which is quiet.
                ↑             ↑
             先行词      关系代词
 
I'm interested in the book (which )my mother bought me.                                      ↑                  ↑
                                先行词      关系代词
 

 
 
(一)
关系词通常有下列三个作用
 
 
 
A、引导定语从句,连接主从句;
B、代替先行词;
C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。
 
 
 
 
(二)
关系代词引导的定语从句
 
1.who
指人,在定语从句中作主语。
The boys who are playing football are from Class One.
Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.
Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his
way.
That is the teacher who teaches us physics.
2.whom
指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。
Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus.
Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to
see.
The professor (whom ) you are waiting for has come.
 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our
monitor.
注意:
关系代词whom
在口语或非正式文体中常可用who 来代替,也可省略。
The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old
friend.
 
3.Which
指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。
Football is a game which is liked by most boys.
He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers.
The house which is by the lake looks nice.
This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday.
The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all.
4.That
即可指人,也可指物.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常可省略。
The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million.
Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? The person that /whom you introduced to me is very
kind.
The season that / which comes after spring is
summer.
Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia.
5.Whose
即可指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。
I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country.
He has a friend whose father is a doctor.
I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in.注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替:
The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.
The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.
Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?
Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?
 
 
 
 
(三)
限制性定语从句中
只能用that
引导定语从句的情况
 
1.当先行词是everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some等不定代词时,或当先行词受every, any,all, some, no, little, few, much等不定代词修饰时。如:
Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li
said?
There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world.
All that can be done has been done. 。
There is little that I can do for you.
He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed.
注意:当先行词指人时,尽管先行词之前有any,
all来修饰,除了要用that引导定语从句外,偶尔也可用关系代词who,如:
Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.
All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people.
2.当先行词被序数词修饰时。如:
 
The first place that they visited in London was the Big  Ben.
The first thing(      )should be done is to get the tickets.
When people talk about HangZhou, the first(       )comes to mind is the West Lake.
That's the most expensive hotel(    )we've ever stayed in.
 
 
3.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如:
Is that the best work (that )you can do?
The first thing(that  )should be done is to get the
tickets.
When people talk  about 5HangZhou,the first( that )comes to mind is the West  Lake.
That's the most expensive hotel( that)we've ever stayed in.
This is the best film that I have ever seen.
 
4.当先行词被the very, the only, the last修饰时。如:
This is the very dictionary that I want to buy.
After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns.
 
注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词who。如:
Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.
 
5.当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时。如:
 
 
Who is the man that is standing by the gate?
Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

 
 
6.当先行词为人与物时。如:
They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at  school.
 
 
(四)
定语从句中
只能用which引导定语从句的情况
 
 
定语从句中用Which的几种情况

Abstract : Generally, when talking about the differences between “that” and “which” in the Attributive Clauses, teachers like to emphasize the uses of “that”.  So most students are familiar with it
and know how to use “that”.  But many of the students don’t know the relative pronoun “which” also has many uses . In the past few years, “which” appeared more frequently in NMET than “that”.  So this article mainly shows us when to use “which” and give a complete conclusion of “which”.

      which 在定语从句中指代物,有时也可指代人

    通常,在讲定语从句关系代词“that”与“which”的区别时,老师喜欢强调“that”的用法,大部分学生对其比较熟悉,也知道如何使用“that”。然而,关系代词“which”的用法同样比较多。它既可以指物,也可以指人(这一点可能许多同学不太熟悉和了解);既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。近几年来,高考对“which”的考查越来越多。请看下面几个高考题:
1 . The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80%_______ are sold abroad . (2014年辽宁卷, 答案:A .which指代物)

A. of which    B. which of  C. of them   D. of that

2 . The journey around the world took the sailor nine months ,________ the sailing time was 226 days .(2014年广西卷 ,答案A .  which 指代物)

     A. of which        B. during which 
C. from which  D. for which

3 . Frank’s dream was to have his own shop ______ to produce the workings of his own hands. (2005年湖南卷 答案:B  which 指代物)

A. that   B. in which   C. by which  D. on which

4 . The English play _______my students acted at the New Year’s party was great success .(2005 年全国I卷答案:C which指代物)

A. for which  B. at which   C. in   which   D. on which

5 . Her sister has become a lawyer , _______ she wanted to be . (2005年湖北卷 答案D   which指代人)

   A.who      B. that    C.what    D. which 

   
     因此,掌握“which”在何种情况下使用是非常有必要的。那么,“which”到底有那些用法呢?现对“which”的用法进行全面总结,并将其一些较特殊的和不常见的用法予以展示,希望可对各位同仁和英语爱好者有所帮助。

一、先行词表物时下列情况只用which;不能用that:

1、在定语从句中, 当介词后紧跟关系代词时 ,  which作介词宾语。

Eg:

① The table under which the boy crawled was put up for
aution.男孩在下面爬的那张桌子被拿去拍卖了。

② Light is the fast thing in the world , the speed of which is 300,000 kilometers per second.世界上光的速度是最快的,其速度是每秒三十万公里。

    ③ He once participated the investigation the result of which will be soon published.   他参加了结果不久就将公布的那项调查。

④The prize for which he worked so hard was a new bike.

⑤He built a telescope through which he could study the
skies.
 
另外,还可以在不定式作定语的结构中作介词宾语。此时不定式短语相当于一个定语从句。

Eg :
 ① The key with which to open the door has been
lost.  开这扇门的钥匙不见了。
     =(with which to open the door=with which we can open the door)

② We moved to the country so that children have a garden in which to play.

  =(in which to play =in which they could
play)我们搬到了乡下,这样孩子们就有一个花园游玩了。

2、在限制性定语从句中指代的先行词为that时

Eg:
① That which is most highly valued in the tribe is
hero.   在这部落最受推崇的是英雄。

② That which is well done is twice done. 一次做得好等于做两次。

③This is that which he bought yesterday.

3、(1)在非限制性定语从句中先行词指物时,用关系代词which

 Eg:

① All these books , which had been donated by
visisting  professors, are to be used by the
postgraduates.所有这些书将被研究生使用,书是由客座教授赠给的。


② Bamboo is hollow, which makes it light.

③ He wrote an article, which tells us about the
computer.
(2)在非限制性定语从句中引导修饰句子的定语从句,相当于and that。

Eg :
①. He invited us to dinner ,which was very kind of
him.  他请我们去吃饭,他真是太好了。

② Pam didn’t go to the show ,and that is a pity.

=Pam didn’t go to the show, which is a pity.帕姆没去看表演,真遗憾。

4、在非限制性定语从句中作名词的限定词,用于总结整个主句的情况或句子部分内容,常见的名词有fact ,case ,event
,situation,time, failure ,claim , point 等。

     Which的这种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中,which可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,多数情况下意思是与and  this 相似,例如:
He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very  happy.

Eg:
① Profit had to be increased , to achieve which object become the occupation of business executives.必须提高利润,追求达到这一目标成了企业经理们的主要活动。

   ② He is old ,which fact is  impotant.他已经老了,这个事实是很重要的。

   ③ The plane may be several hours late, in which case there’s no point in our waiting .飞机可能晚点几个小时,这样我们再等也就没有意义了。

   ④ He lost his temper, at which point I decided to go home.他发脾气了,这时我就决定回家了。

   ⑤They stayed with me for theseweeks during which time they drank all the wine I had .他们和我一起呆了三周,在这期间他们喝光了我所有的酒。

二、which可指代人

 1、当充当定语从句的表语或宾语时,往往用来表示某类所具有的性格、素质、地位或职业等。

 Eg:
① He imagined himself to be an artist ,which
he was not.虽然他不是艺术家,但是他却把自己想象成一个艺术家。

    ② He isexactly the man which an education was likely toform. 他是这种教育可能造就的出来的人。

      
③ He talked like a native ,which he hardly was.他说起话来像是本地人,其实他不见得是。

   
2、可以用于指代不分性别的婴儿或儿童。

    
Eg:
 
① His mother had ten children, of which he was the
oldest.他母亲有十个孩子,他是最大的那个。

   
3、指与人有关的集体(整体),不表其成员。

       
① The government which is cuttng its losses depends on the agriculture.正在消减损失的政府。

       
② The audience, which was most enthusiastic applauded the soloist.极为热情的观众为那位独唱演员热烈鼓掌。
 
Exercise 1 :用关系代词填空
1. The boy ____________ is playing ping-pong is my classmate.
2. The e-mail ___________ I received yesterday was from my sister.
3. I hate people ______________ talk much but do little.
4. The car _____________ my father bought last month is very beautiful.
5. The man ______ hair is white is his grandfather.
6. Is there a student _________ father is a business man?
7. This is the house in ________ we have lived for 10 years.
8.I’ve never heard of the people and things ________ you talked about just now.
Exercise 2.
1.My father and his teacher talked a lot about the persons and things ______ they couldn’t remember.
2.Say all ________ you know.
3.Is there anything ______ I can do for you?

 
 
(五)
关系副词引导的定语从句
 
1. when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。
 
A.      当先行词是表时间的名词,比如time, day, week, month,year等;且定语从句中缺时间状语时用when.
 
特别提示:
B. 若先行词是表时间的名词,定语从句中缺主语或宾语时,用that/which引导。
A.
 
I still remember the day when I first came to this
school.
 
The time when we got together finally arrived.
Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandpare?
 
B.
Do you remember the days(that/which) we spent together last year?
 
I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together.
 
I will never forget the days that / which we spent
together.

 
2. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。
 
A.若先行词是表地点的名词,比如park,city, farm, place等;且定语从句中缺地点状语时用where.
 
特别提示:
 
B.若先行词是表地点的名词,定语从句中缺主语或宾语时,用that/which引导。
Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。
The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.
I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised .
I know a place  where we can have a picnic.
 
 
Shanghai is the city (which/that) I want to visit.
I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery.
 
3. why
     指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。若先行词是reason;
且定语从句中缺原因状语时,用why引导。若先行词是reason,定语从句中缺主语或宾语,用which/that引导。
 
Please tell me the reason why you missed the
plane.
I don’t know thereason why he looks unhappy
today.
I didn’t believethe reason (that/which) he explained tome.
 
注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。如:
From the years when/ in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up.
Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live.
The reason why /for which he refused the invitation is quite clear.
 
(六)
 
“介词+关系代词which/whom”引导的定语从句
 
 
关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。
The school (which /that) he once studied in is very famous.==
The school where he once studied  is very famous.
 
Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for.
Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked.
This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday.
This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday.
We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about.
We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions.
The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working
conditions.
 
注意:
 
1.含有介词的固定短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如:look for, look after, take care of 等。
 
This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for.
(正)
This is the watch for which I am looking . (误)
The babies (whom /who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy.
(正)
The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy.
(误)
 
2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用whom,不可用who, that;关系代词指物时只可用which,不可用that。
The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正)
The man with that /who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误)
The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正)
The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误)
 
3.“介词+关系代词”前还可有some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each,few等代词或者数词。如:
He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.
In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad.
There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities.
Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life.
 
 
注意事项:如何判断关系代词和关系副词
方法一:
 
用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词;而及物动词后接宾语,则要求用关系代词。
 
例如:
This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 
I'll never forget the days when I worked together with
you. 
 
判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。) 
(错) This is the mountain village where I visited last
year. 
(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the
countryside. 
(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. 
(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the
countryside. 
 
 
 
方法二:
 
准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
 
例1.
 
Is this museum ___you visited a few days ago? 
A. where B. that   C. on which  D. the   one
 
 
例2.
Is this the museum ___ the exhibition was held?
A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one
 
答案: 
 
关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which,
whose);
 
先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。
 
 
(七)
限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
 
 
 
1、限制性定语从句
形式上:不用逗号“,”与主句隔开。
意义上:是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除,主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。
译法上:译成先行词的定语:“...的”
关系词的使用上:
A.作宾语时可省略
    B.可用that
C.可用who 代替whom
 
 
2、非限制性定语从句
形式上:用逗号“,”与主句隔开。
意义上:只是对先行词的补充说明,如删除,主句仍能表达完整的意思。
译法上:通常译成主句的并列句。
关系词的使用上:
A.不可省略
    B.不用that
C.不可用who 代替whom限制性定语从句举例:
 
The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. China is a country which has a long history.
In the street I saw a man who was from Africa.
His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with
him.
China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful.
Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
(八)
关系代词as和which 引导的定语从句


as 和which
        引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。具体情况是:
 
 
1. as 和which都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如:
He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。
He is honest, as /which we can see. 他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。
 
2. as  引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后,甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外,as 常常有“正如、正像”的含义。如:
As is known to all,  China is a developing country.
He is from the south, as we can know from his
accent.
John, as you know, is a famous writer.
Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe.
注意:
 
当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用which。如:
Tom was late for  school again and again, which made his teacher very angry.
These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy.
 
1. 当先行词受such, so,the same 修饰时,关系词常用as。 如:
 
I’ve never heard  such stories as he tells.
He is not such a fool as he looks.
This is the same dictionary as I lost last week.
 
注意:
当先行词受the same修饰时,偶尔也用 that引导定语从句,但与as引导的定语从句意思有区别。如:
 
She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding.
She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore.
 
 
2. 以the way为先行词时,若定语从句中缺方式状语,定语从句通常由in which或that引导,而且还可以省略。若定语从句中缺主语或宾语,用(that/which)引导定语从句。
 
The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising.
I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. I don’t like the way (that/which) he told me.
 
做定语从句题一般分三步:第一找出先行词;第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语);第三选择合适的关联词。

 
Exercises:
1.There are three bedrooms in the house,_____ is
Mary's.
A the smallest of which   B the smaller of which
C the smallest of them     D the smallest one
 
2.The Greens will move into the new house next Monday,_____ it will be completely finished.
A by the time      B by  which time
 C by that time   D by this  time
3.Alice has a large collection of phone,_____ was taken in london.
A. none of them   B no one of which
 C all of which      D none of whichm
4.With the fast development of agriculture, the people ____ village I taught before lived a happy life.
A who    B whose    C in whose    D in which
5.There is a moutain ____ the top is always covered with snow.
A whose     B of which     C it's     D that
6.She may have   missed her train, in ____ case she won't arrive for another hour.
A what     B that    C   which   D this
7.
1) I have three  children,and two of _____ are doctors.
2) I have three  children, two of ____ are doctors.
8.There two  thousand students in our school,____ are  girls.
A two-thirds in  which   B two-thirds in the
 C two-thirds of them     D of whom two thirds
9.I have bought two   ballpens,_____ writes well.
A neither of them     B none of them
C neither of which   D none of  which
 
(1---6ABDCBC   7----9B DDC)
 
  
特殊结构定语从句检测
1. These houses are sold at such a low price ______people expected.
A.like    B.as     C.that     D. which
2. I've never heard so interesting a story ____ you told me.
A.as          B.that    C. of which   D. about which
3. I've seen the same film _____ you saw yesterday.
A.that       B. which    C.as                D. like
4. I'll buy the same coat ________ you wear.
A.that       B. which   C.as                 D. like
5. He made another wonderful discovery, ___ of great importance to science.
A. which I thinkis     B.which I think it is
C. which I think it    D. Ithink is
6. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.
A. It        B.As          C.That        D. What
7. This is the first time ________ he has been here.
A.that   B.when   C. atwhich    D.which
8. I don't like________ you speak to her.
A. the way                      B. they way in that
C. the way which         D. the way of which
答案与简析:
1. B。当先行词被such修饰时,定语从句用as引导,即构成结构为"such(a/an)+形容词+名词+as"引导的定语从句,意为"......像......一样的"。整个句子意为:这些房屋以人们原来估计的那样低的价格出售。
2. A。由so interesting a story = such an interesting
story和上面一题的解释便可得知答案。as在定语从句中作宾语。整句意为:我从未听说过像你告诉我那样有趣的故事。
3.A
4.C。当先行词被same修饰时,定语从句由that或as引导,但意思不同。用that引导定语从句指同一物,而用as引导定语从句指同类事物。
5. A。做此题的关键是要知道I think在定语从句中作插入语,做题时将其去掉便可容易得到答案。
6. B。As在此引导非限制性定语从句,代表它所修饰的整个句子内容,并且它可放在所修饰句子的前、中或后面。其常见结构如:as youknow, as is said above, as is often the
case(情况经常是这样)等。如选A,则需将逗号改为that;如选D,则需将逗号改为is that。
7. A。当先行词为the first time, the last time等时,定语从句的引导词用that而不用when。
8. A。当先行词为way时,定语从句的引导词用that或in which, 也可省略。
 
 
 
 
 
(九)
先行词不是地点名词,而定语从句引导词要用where的情况
 

1.当先行词是position,case,point,situation,stage,point,condition, occasion , state, activity,job 等时,后常用where, in which引导定语从句。

Can you imagine a situation where/in which you can use the word?你能想像出可以使用这个单词的语境吗?
 
语法填空

①He's got himself into a dangerous situation        he is likely to lose control over the plane.

②I can ,t think of the situation      I meet my father.

③They have to think of a good idea to cope with the
situation       they face.

答案:

①where 
②where 
③that/which

 

 
2. 不过在定语从句中position,case,point,situation,stage,point,condition, occasion , state, activity,
job 等做先行词,关系副词可以用where,但并非一定是这样固定的,而是要结合具体语境。例如:
 —What do you think of teaching, Bob?
     —I find it fun and challenging. It is a job( where ) you are doing something serious  but interesting.

      We will discuss a number of cases (  where  ) beginners of English fail to use the language preperly.

     He was driving so fast as to get himself into a dangerous situation (  where  ) he is likely to lose
the control over his car.

 

千万注意:
 
position,case,point,situation,stage,point,condition, occasion , state, activity,job 等做先行词后面的定语从句未必一定就是where,关键还是分析从句中缺什么成分,若缺主表宾,即先行词可以在后面从句中做主表宾,此时需要选用关系代词而不是where。例如:


This is the job that he offered to me.

I wasn't clear about the situation that he was in at that
moment.

the conflict had developed into a stage ___ the two countries were gathering big troops on the border. 

a.where          b.when           c.which            d. that 

      本题到底是选a还是选b?关键问题在于对先行词stage的理解,根据《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》(第七版)简作的解析:stage: a period of state that sb./sth. passes through while developing or making progress. 既可以理解为事件“(进展或进展的)阶段,状态”;又可以理解为“时期”。而上题中作“阶段”或“时期”都理解的通。

  stage的用法:
 
1. stage名词 n. [c]1.舞台
   some girls are dancing on the stage.   一些女孩在舞台上跳舞。

       2.注意中心,活动舞台,场所

      3.(进展的)阶段;时期

    a caterpillar must pass through the cocoon stage to become a butterfly.

    The caterpillar will eventually metamorphose into a
butterfly.  毛毛虫最终将蜕变成一只蝴蝶。

    
 表示这些意思时,当stage作先行词后有定语从句时,。

例句:

1.表地点:  The stage where the girls are going to
dance is in the gym.

      
2.表时期:  The stage when he is preparing for his
study is really important.

不同的叙述:
①当先行词为position,case,point,situation,stage,point,condition, occasion , state, activity,
job 等名词,表示情况、方面、处境时用关系副词where.

 
②当先行词是position,case,point,situation,stage,point,condition, occasion , state, activity,
job 等名词时,表示情况、方面、处境时,用关系副词where.但先行词是occasion时,用关系副词when.

③当position,case,point,situation,stage,point,condition,moccasion , state, activity,job ,scenes
做先行词时,用 where 引导定语从句
 

   ④先行词通常是 time, day, season, age, occasion
等时间名词时其后的定语从句用when引导.

     事实上, 当先行词 occasion, point, stage等名词是表示时间节点的时候,其后的定语从句就用when引导,在从句中作时间状语.
例如:

1. I can remember very few occasions when he had
to cancel because of ill health.我记得他因健康不佳而被迫取消的情况绝无仅有。when引导定语从句,在从句中作时间状语.

2. Occasions are quite rare _____I have the time to spend a day with my kids.

     a.who       b. which      c.why     d.when

      答案选d。考查定语从句。此题关键是要根据句意判定是定语从句。句意为:我有时间和孩子们一起度过一天的机会很少。occasions 是先行词, 所选关系词在定语从句中要作时间状语, 故选d项

3. we had reached the point when there was no money.
我们那时已到了没有一分钱的时刻。point表示“某一阶段,关头”, 所以其后用when 引导定语从句。

4. There comes a point in your life when you realize: who matters, who never did, who won't anymore

5. China is now at a stage of accelerated industrialization and urbanization when the contradiction between economic growth and
environmental protection is particularly prominent.中国目前正处于工业化和城市化加速发展的阶段,此时经济增长和环境保护之间的矛盾十分突出。

    
     但更多情况是:position,situation, stage,case等,作先行词时,其后的定语从句应用where引导定语从句。如:

3.We were put in a position in which(=where) we had either toaccept we were less important, or fight the
government. (人教版新课标高中英语必修1 p34)我们被置于这样一种境地,或者是被迫承认我们低人一等,或者是与政府作斗争。

这是一个主从复合句,in which引导定语从句,修饰先行词position。

4. Can you think of a situation where you once felt
embarrassed?你能设想起你曾经有过感到很窘迫的场合吗?

5.He is the boss of the restaurant where (= in which) we often have lunch.

6. The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at
all. (人教版新课标高中英语必修1 p34)

 
        注意:近年来高考对关系副词where的考查趋于复杂化,从先行词为明显的“地点”发展为“模糊的地点化”。事实上,当先行词表示某事物发展的某个situation“情景”、stage“阶段”或某种程度时都可以用where引导定语从句。所以文章开头那道题答案为a.
 
更多的列子如:

1.  It’s helpful to put children in a situation___they can see themselves differently.

     a.that         b.when         c.which          d. where

2. I have reached a point in my life _______i am
supposed to make decisions of my own.

    a.which         b.where       c.how       d. why

3. An iraqi reporter during a news conference ____threw hisshoes at bush and called  him a dog in arabic shocked the world.

     a.who        b.where         c.whom      d. which


1.【解析】选d。考查定语从句。句意为:把孩子放在一个能使他们从另外一个角度认识自己的环境中对他们有益。当先行词是case,condition, situation, position, point, stage等名词表示“情况, 方面, 处境”时,关系副词用where。

2. 【解析】选b。考查定语从句。句意为:我已经到了应该自己作决定的那个人生阶段。先行词point和定语从句被介词短语in my life隔开。当先行词是case, condition, situation, position, point, stage等名词表示“情况、方面、处境”时, 定语从句用关系副词where引导。how不能用来引导定语从句;
which在定语从句中作主语或宾语; why引导定语从句时先行词应为reason; 因此可排除选项a、c和d。

3.【解析】选d。考查定语从句。此题关键是要根据句意判定是定语从句。句意为:我有时间和孩子们一起度过一天的机会很少。occasions是先行词, 所选关系词在定语从句中要作时间状语, 故选d项。

类似的还有如:

4.Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity____sight matters more than hearing.

     a.when      b.whose     c.which       d. where

这道题中的 activity 做地点状语。选d

4.【解析】选d:本题考查对定语从句的掌握和运用能力。句意为“那些失聪的成功舞蹈演员们认为,舞蹈是一种让人看胜过让人听的活动。”据句子结构判断,空白处缺一引导定语从句的关联词,由于先行词activity在从句中担任地点状语故应该选择关系副词where,因此正确答案为d项。
 

 
     所以大部分的语法解析中提到当position,case,point,situation,stage,point,condition,occasion , state, activity, job 这四个词在定语从句中作先行词表示抽象的地点时,其后的定语从句的引导词一般用where
例如:

1. The media can draw attention to situation where help is needed.

2. We have reached a stage where we have almost no rights.

3. Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases where beginners of english fail to use the language properly.

4. We are just trying to reach a point where both sides will sit down together and talk.

5. Their youngest child is at the stage where she can say
individual words but not full sentences.
 

练习:用适当的关系副词填空

1. Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases________ beginners of english fail to use the language properly. 
a.which         b.as            c.why          d.where

2. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity_______ sight matters more than hearing. 
a.when        b.whose       c.which          d.where

3. After graduation she reached a point in her
career_______  she needed to decide what todo. 
a.that          b.what         c.which         d.where

4. Can you think out a situation _______ this word can be used? 
a.where       b.whose       c.which          d.when

5. Her illness has developed to the point _____nobody can cure her.
a.that         b.where       c.which          d.what

6. We're just trying to reaching a point ____both sides will sit down together and talk.
  a.when       b.that               c.where           d. which 

 

答案及解释:

1.答案d。解析:考查定语从句。先行词是cases,意思是:情况,状态,关系词在从句中作状语,先行词指地点,用where。

2. 答案d。解析:考查的是定语从句。dancing is an activity后面是一个定语从句,修饰an activity,在定语从句中缺少状语,所以用where或in which。

3. 答案d。解析: 本题考查定语从句的引导词。在定语从句中,当先行词为point, case, situation等时,通常用关系副词where引导。

4. 答案a。解析:本题考查定语从句的引导词。在定语从句中,当先行词为point, case, situation等时,通常用关系副词where引导.你能设想出这个单词被使用的场合吗?

5. 答案b。解析:本题考查定语从句的引导词。在定语从句中,当先行词为point, case, situation等时,通常用关系副词where引导. 她的病发展到没人能治的地步。

6.答案c。解析:本题考查定语从句的引导词。在定语从句中,当先行词为point, case, situation等时,通常用关系副词where引导.
 
 

 
 
(十)
同位语从句与定语从句全析
       
        同位语从句指的是在复合句中充当同位语的从句,属于名词性从句的范畴,同位语从句用来对其前面的抽象名词进行解释说明,被解释说明的词和同位语在逻辑上是主表关系
 
一、同位语从句
一个名词(或其它形式)对另一个名词或代词进行修饰,限定或说明,这个名词(或其它形式)就是同位语。
      同位语与被它限定的词的格式要一致,并常常紧挨在一起。
      同位语从句即重复说明同一个称谓或事件的从句。
1.名词作同位语
Mr Wang,my child’s teacher,will be visiting us on Tuesday.王先生,我孩子的老师,星期二要来看我们。
(在这里'my child's teacher'做同位语修饰'Mr Wang')
2.短语作同位语
I,the oldest girl in the family,always had to care for the other children.我,作为家里最大的女孩,总是要照料家中的其他孩子。
3.直接引语作同位语
But now the question comes to their minds,“Did she die young because she was a clone?”但是现在他们不得不思考这样的问题:“多莉早死是因为它是一只克隆羊吗?”
4.句子作同位语
The girls were surprised at the fact that ocean ships can sail up the Great lakes.
巨大的海轮可以开到五大湖,让表姐妹俩感到吃惊。
5.固定用法
   同位语部分是个句子,就是同位语从句,这种用法比较"固定"
  
 一、在复合句中用作同位语的从句叫同位语从句。它一般跟在某些名词后面,用以说明该名词表示的具体内容。
I heard the news that our team had won.我听到了我们队获胜的消息。
 
二、可以跟同位语从句的名词通常有news,idea,fact,promise,question,doubt,thought,hope,message,suggestion,words(消息),possibility,decision等(一般的“抽象”名词都可用)。
I’ve come from Mr wang with a message that he won’t be able to see you this afternoon.我从王先生那里来,他让我告诉你他今天下午不能来看你了。
 
三、英语中引导同位语从句的词通常有连词that,whether,连接代词what,who。连接副词how,when,where等。(注:if不能引导同位语从句。)
He must answer the question whether he agrees with it or not.他必须回答他是否同意这样一个问题。
四、有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在说明的名词后面,而被别的词隔开。
The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city.他突然想起敌人可能已经逃出城了。
 
 
 
(一)定语从句和同位语从句的引导词
  
   同位语从句的引导词,引导同位语从句的词语通常有连词that,whether,连接代词和连接副词等。
1.  that引导 同位语从句
   that连接从句时从句为一个句意完整的陈述句。that不能省略,没有具体的意思,不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。
同位语从句
(注:引导同位语从句的that不能省略)
The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong.你认为不动脑筋就能做好这件工作的想法是完全错误的。(作idea的同位语)
【注意1】在某些名词(如demand, wish,suggestion,resolution 等)后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气
There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.有一项建议是布朗应该离队。
【注意2】引导同位语从句的连词that通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。
    He grabbed his suitcase and gave the impression( ) he was boarding the Tokyo plane.他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。
 
2.  whether引导 同位语从句
(注:if不能引导同位语从句)
The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.我们是否请专家由家庭医生来定。
【注意】whether 可引导同位语从句,但if不能引导同位语从句。
 
3.  其它引导词引导
    连接代词what,who,whom,whose,引导同位语从句

1) I have no idea what size shoes she wears.我不知道她穿几号的鞋。(what作定语)
2) The question who will take his place is still not clear. (who作主语)
 
4.  连接副词引导
     连接副词when,where,how,why

We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。
 
(二)定语从句和同位语从句的先行词
1.定语从句的先行词是名词或代词;而同位语从句的先行词只能是名词,而且仅限于idea,plan,fact,theory,promise,hope,news,doubt,truth,information,suggestion,question, thought,belief,conclusion等少数名词。
 
      辨别下列定语从句与同位语从句
例如:
①The boy who is playing football is my classmate.
②Those who work hard will succeed.
③The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.
④The fact that you are talking about is important.
      在①句中,划线部分是定语从句,其先行词是名词 boy,是具体名词,它不能用作同位语从句的先行词。
  在②句中,划线部分也是定语从句,其先行词是代词those,代词不能用作同位语从句的先行词。
  在③句中,划线部分是同位语从句,其先行词是名词fact,它同样可以用作定语从句的先行词,
④句便是一例。划线部分是对fact的修饰,所以是定语从句。
     由以上分析可见,同位语从句的先行词一定可以用作定语从句的先行词,但定语从句的先行词不一定能用作同位语从句的先行词。
 
2.when,where,why引导的定语从句的先行词一定分别是表示时间、地点和原因的名词,而三者引导的同位语从句的先行词则肯定不是表示时间、地点和原因的名词。
例如:

①I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.
②I have no idea when she will be back.
    在①句中,加粗部分是when引导的定语从句,其先行词day是表示时间的名词;
  在②句中,加粗部分是when引导的同位语从句,其先行词idea则不是表示时间的名词。

    3. 定语从句和同位语从句共同的引导词有四个:that,when,where,why。下面把四个引导词分成两类说明它们在两种从句中的不同用法。

(1)引导词that
     引导定语从句的that叫做关系代词,它除了起连接作用,还在定语从句中充当一定成分,并且在意义上代表先行词;而引导同位语从句的that叫做从属连词,它只起连接作用。不能省略。
例如:

①The news that you told me yesterday was really exciting.
②We heard the news that our team had won.

       在①句中,加粗部分是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语,在意义上指代先行词news。
  在②句中,加粗部分是同位语从句,that没有任何意义,只起连接作用。

(2)引导词when,where,why
      引导定语从句时,它们叫做关系副词,在从句中充当状语,可以转换成"介词关系代词"的形式;而引导同位语从句时,它们叫做连接副词,在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词关系代词"的形式。
例如:

①I will never forget the day when I joined the army.
②We have no idea when she was born.
在①句中,加粗部分是定语从句,when在从句中作状语,它可以转换成on which的形式;
  在②句中,加粗部分是同位语从句, when在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词关系代词"的形式。

③This is the house where I lived two years ago.
④He put forward to the question where the meeting would be held.
  
在③句中,加粗部分是定语从句,where在从句中作状语,它可以转换成in which的形式;
  在④句中,加粗部分是同位语从句, where在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词关系代词"的形式。

⑤This is the reason why she will not attend the meeting.
⑥The teacher had no idea why Jack was absent.
       在⑤句中,加粗部分是定语从句,why在从句中作状语,它可以转换成for which的形式;
  在⑥句中,加粗部分是同位语从句,why在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词关系代词"的形式。
 
 
从句式关系辨别同位语从句与定语从句
(一)由that 既可引导同位语从句又可引导定语从句,其区别在于:
1.同位语从句由连接词that引导,连接词that本身无意义,在同位语从句中不充当任何成分,不可省略,不可以用其他词替代;
2.定语从句由关系代词that引导,关系代词that在从句中充当一定的成分,作宾语时可省略.
(二)由when,where,why引导的同位语从句和定语从句的区别在于:
 
1. 由连接副词同位语从句只起连接作用,没有指代作用;定语从句由关系副词引导,关系副词具有指代先行词的作用,常可用一个介词加关系代词替换。例如:
I will never forget the day when we first met. (定语从句,when为关系副词)
  That is the special day (which/that) I will never forget. (定语从句,which/that为关系代词,作forget的宾语)
  This is the house where we lived fifteen years ago. (定语从句,where为关系副词)
  This is the house which we sold fifteen years ago. (定语从句,which为关系代词,作sold的宾语).
      He must answer the question whether he agrees with it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意这样一个问题。

四、有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在说明的名词后面,而被别的词隔开。

The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city.他突然想起敌人可能已经逃出城了。

【注意1】在某些名词(如demand,wish, suggestion,resolution等)后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气
There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.有一项建议是布朗应该离队。
【注意2】引导同位语从句的连词that通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。
He grabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the Tokyo plane.他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。
whether引导
(注:if不能引导同位语从句)
The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.我们是否请专家由家庭医生来定。
【注意】whether 可引导同位语从句,但if不能引导同位语从句。
 
其它引导词引导
    连接代词what,who,whom,whose,引导同位语从句
1).I have no idea what size shoes she wears.
我不知道她穿几号的鞋。(what作定语)
2).The question who will take his place is still not clear. (who作主语)
连接副词引导
连接副词when,where,how,why
We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。
先行词
1.定语从句的先行词是名词或代词;而同位语从句的先行词只能是名词,而且仅限于idea,plan,fact,theory,promise,hope,news,doubt,truth,information,suggestion,question, thought,belief,conclusion等少数名词。
同位语从句
例如:
①The boy who is playing football is my classmate.
  ②Those who work hard will succeed.
  ③The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.
  ④The fact that you are talking about is important.
在①句中,加粗部分是定语从句,其先行词是名词 boy,是具体名词,它不能用作同位语从句的先行词。
  在②句中,加粗部分也是定语从句,其先行词是代词those,代词不能用作同位语从句的先行词。
  在③句中,加粗部分是同位语从句,其先行词是名词fact,它同样可以用作定语从句的先行词,④句便是一例。加粗部分是对fact的修饰,所以是定语从句。
由以上分析可见,同位语从句的先行词一定可以用作定语从句的先行词,但定语从句的先行词不一定能用作同位语从句的先行词。
2.when,where,why引导的定语从句的先行词一定分别是表示时间、地点和原因的名词,而三者引导的同位语从句的先行词则肯定不是表示时间、地点和原因的名词。
例如:
①I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.
  ②I have no idea when she will be back.
在①句中,加粗部分是when引导的定语从句,其先行词day是表示时间的名词;
  在②句中,加粗部分是when引导的同位语从句,其先行词idea则不是表示时间的名词。
引导词
定语从句和同位语从句共同的引导词有四个:that,when,where,why。下面把四个引导词分成两类说明它们在两种从句中的不同用法。
 
1.引导词that
      引导定语从句的that叫做关系代词,它除了起连接作用,还在定语从句中充当一定成分,并且在意义上代表先行词;引导同位语从句的that叫做从属连词,它只起连接作用。不能省略。
例如:
①The news that you told me yesterday was really exciting.
  ②We heard the news that our team had won.
在①句中,加粗部分是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语,在意义上指代先行词news。
  在②句中,加粗部分是同位语从句,that没有任何意义,只起连接作用。
2.引导词when,where,why
引导定语从句时,它们叫做关系副词,在从句中充当状语,可以转换成"介词关系代词"的形式;引导同位语从句时,它们叫做连接副词,在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词关系代词"的形式。
例如:
①I will never forget the day when I joined the army.
  ②We have no idea when she was born.
在①句中,加粗部分是定语从句,when在从句中作状语,它可以转换成on which的形式;
  在②句中,加粗部分是同位语从句, when在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词 关系代词"的形式。
③This is the house where I lived two years ago.
  ④He put forward to the question where the meeting would be held.
在③句中,加粗部分是定语从句,where在从句中作状语,它可以转换成in which的形式;
  在④句中,加粗部分是同位语从句, where在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词 关系代词"的形式。
⑤This is the reason why she will not attend the meeting.
  ⑥The teacher had no idea why Jack was absent.
在⑤句中,加粗部分是定语从句,why在从句中作状语,它可以转换成for which的形式;
  在⑥句中,加粗部分是同位语从句,why在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词关系代词"的形式。
句式关系
与定语从句
that 既可引导同位语从句又可引导定语从句,其区别在于:1.同位语从句由连接词that引导,连接词that本身无意义,在同位语从句中不充当任何成分,不可省略,不可以用其他词替代;2.定语从句由关系代词that引导,关系代词that在从句中充当一定的成分,作宾语时可省略.
由when,where,why引导的同位语从句和定语从句的区别在于:同位语从句由连接副词只起连接作用,没有指代作用;定语从句由关系副词引导,关系副词具有指代先行词的作用,常用一个介词加关系代词替换。例如:I will never forget the day when we first met. (定语从句,when为关系副词)
  That is the special day (which/that) I will never forget. (定语从句,which/that为关系代词,作forget的宾语)
  This is the house where we lived fifteen years ago. (定语从句,where为关系副词)
  This is the house which we sold fifteen years ago. (定语从句,which为关系代词,作sold的宾语).

1. 意义的不同
     同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号;而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来:
We are glad at the news that he will come.听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)
We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。(that从句是限制the news的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)
  2. 引导词的不同
     what,how,whatever 等可引导同位语从句,但不引导定语从句。
3.引导词的功能上的不同
    that引导同位语从句时,它不充当句子成分,而引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。如上例 that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。
4. 被修饰词语的区别 
     同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限,通常有hope,wish,idea,news,fact,promise,opinion,suggestion,truth等,而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。另外,when和where 引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导同位语从句时却不一定;又如why引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词the reason,而它引导同位语从句时则不一定:
I have no idea when they will come .
  我不知道他们什么时候来。(同位语从句)
I’ll never forget the days when I lived there..
  我永远不会忘记我住在那儿的日子。(定语从句)
相关语法
位置
1.一般情况下同位语从句跟在某些名词(如news,idea,fact,promise,hope,message等)的后面,用以说明该名词所表达的具体内容。
同位语从句
I’ve come from Mr Wang with a message that he can't visit you this afternoon.我从王先生那边得知一个消息,他说他今天下午可能不能来看你了。
2.有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后,而被别的词语隔开,在语法上叫做分隔式同位语从句。
The thought came to her that maybe she had left the door open when she left home.她突然想起可能在她离开家时没把门关上。
1.先行词的单复数
同位语从句前的名词通常用单数形式,并且往往带有限定词(word除外)加以修饰。
Where did you get the idea that I could not come?你在哪儿听说我不能来?
1. 语气
    在suggestion,advice,request,order等意为“建议;命令;要求”的名词后,同位语从句中的谓语动词通常用“should 动词原形”的虚拟语气结构,句中的should可以省略。
Our teacher gave us some advice how we(should)use the computer.老师给我们提出了一些如何使用电脑的建议。
先行词
    同位语从句的先行词通常是抽象名词,常见的有:idea,situation thought, fact,evidence, belief,doubt,fear,hope,question,theory,news,order,ability等等。
How did the cheats explain the fact that the Emperor didn't feel the new clothes in him?皇帝觉得身上并没有穿上新衣,对这个问题骗子是怎样解释的?
代词it可用作同位语从句的先行词。这个it常放在某些动词或短语动词后作宾语,同时兼作其后that同位语从句的先行词。

I owe it to you that I am still alive.幸亏你,我此刻还活着。
      有的语法学家把先行词it后的that从句看作是动词或介词的真正宾语。一般认为,这种it后的that 从句应看作it的同位语,因为它相当于“主语 be 表语”结构。
You must see to it that the children don't catch cold.(=You must see to it,and It is that the children don't catch cold.)你要当心,别让孩子们着凉了。
特殊形式
1.间隔同位语从句
        同位语从句通常是跟在它解释或说明的名词后,但有些情况下,由于句子结构的原因,同位语从句不紧跟在名词后,而被其他的词隔开。
      A warm thought suddenly came to me that I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother's birthday
简析:由于that从句太长,为避免句子失去平衡,此处用了间隔同位语从句[1]
例句:
The story goes that he beats his wife.传说他打老婆。
The news got about that he had won acarin the lottery.消息传开说他中彩得了一辆汽车。
The rumour spread that a new school would be built here.谣传这里要盖一所新学校。
Report has it that the Smith sare leaving town.有传言说史密斯一家要离开这座城市。
The thought came to him that may be theene my had fled the city.他想到可能敌人已逃离这座城市。
The order soon came that all citizens should evacuate the village.不久命令下来,所有居民都必须撤出村子。[1]
2.suggestion,request和order等名词后的同位语从句用虚拟语气。
She made a request that the doctor(should)be sent for at once.  她请求立即请医生来。
简析:suggestion,order,request,proposal,requirement,command,advice,proposition和recommendation等名词后接同位语从句时,从句中的谓语动词要用“(should )动词原形”的形式,其中should一词可省略。
 
 
 
(十一)
定语从句练习
 
 
 1.This is the best factory ____we visited last year .
 
A. where    B.which    C. in which   D. that
 
2.Is this thefactory ____computers are built ?
 
A.that      B.which     C. in which   D. in that
3.please pass me the dictionary ____cover is red .
 
A. whose  B.its           C.which        D. which of
 
4.The man ____hasarrived .
 
A. whom I told you          B. that I told you C. whom I told you about him          D. I told you about
 
5. Do you know the comrade ____we are talking ?
 
A. to whom    B.to who    C.whom    D. to that
6. They visited the house ___the great writer was born .
 
A. from where   B. inwhich   C.which   D. in where
7. The comrade___is speaking at the meeting is my teacher .
 
A. whom    B.which    C.who    D.whose
 
8. He asked us to
watch carefully everything ___he did in class.
 
A. who    B.that    C.what    D.where
9. I’ll visit the
professor tomorrow ,___he will be back from Shanghai
.
 
A. who    B.that    C.when    D.which
 
10.The school ___I study is a new one .
 
A. on which   B. atwhere   C. onthat   D. atwhich
 
11. China has many islands,____the largest is Taiwan .
 
A. in which   B. atwhich   C.which   D. ofwhich
 
12. The city ____my mother grew up is not far from here .
 
A. what    B.where   C.that   D.which
13. Our teacherlives in the house ____door faces to the north. 
A. which    B.his   C  .that    D. whose
14. Do you know the man ___your father nodded ?
 
A. whom   B. to whom   C. to who   D. about whom
15.Wrestling is a sport in ___people easily get hurt .
 
A. that    B.when    C.which    D.what
16. I told you____I know .
 
A. all that   B. all which   C. all what   D. all whom
17.China has a lot of famous writers ,one ___is Lu Xun .
 
A. of which   B. of whom   C. of who   D. of them
18. Is this factory____we visited last year ?
 
A. in which   B. around that   C. whom   D. the one
19. Who is the man____was there ?
 
A. who    B. which    C. that    D. whom
20. Is there anything ____I can do for you, sir ?
 
A. that    B.which    C.whose    D.who
21. I stillremember the day ____she first wore that green dress.
 
A. which    B.in which    C.on that    D. onwhich
22. The knife____we used to cut the bread is very sharp .
  A. with which   B. withit    C. withthat    D.which
23. The games____the young men competed in were difficult.
 
A. in which   B. which  C.it    D.who
24.It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..
 
A. that  B. which    C. as  D.it
25. George Mallory was an English school teacher _____ loved climbing.
 
A.who     B.whom         C.he    D. which

 
历届高考英语单项选择题定语从句精选
26.His parents
wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was
poor.
A.of whom   B.whom   C.of whose   D.whose       
27.She heard a errible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth.
A.it     B.which    C.this   D.that              
28.In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help.



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