1）(vt.) give facts or information, a formal word for “tell” 告诉, 通知
Patterns：inform sb. of/about sth.，inform sb that-clause
Please inform us of the time of your arrival as soon as you get the ticket.
They come round and inform us of their decision. 他们来把他们的决议通知了我们。
Visitors should inform the receptionist of their arrival.
Can you inform me when to begin our final examination?
The manager promised to keep me informed about how our business was going on.
The announcement will inform us when to check in.
Can you inform me what I am to do? 你能告诉我应做何事？
They tried to inform him but he wasn't in. 他们设法通知他，但他不在家。
I inform you with gratitude that your parcel reached me. 我怀着感激的心情告诉你，我收到了你寄来的包裹。
vt. A. 打破、打碎、打断
Who broke the window into pieces?
He fell and broke his leg.
Try not to break the silence.
He often breaks his promise/his word/ the law/ the rule.
break away from sb.脱离、离开、背弃
break down 中断、粉碎、发生故障、（身体）跨了、（机器）坏了
break in on sb.打断某人的谈话
break with sb.与某人断交
break sb’s heart使某人心碎
A. vt. 带来、拿来（由远而近）
Bring me the paper, please.
He forgot to bring his umbrella.
May I bring her to see you?
Shall I bring the books upstairs?
After we were seated, she brought out dishes.
bring…to an end/ a stop/ a close使终止、结束
bring… to mind使想起、回忆起
A. vt. 抓住、逮住、挂住The nail caught my coat.
He caught my hand and held it tightly.
We caught ten monkeys in all.
但是 vi. 挂住 His coat caught on a nail.
The kite caught in a tree.
B.赶上、搭上 We’ll hurry and catch the 10:30 bus.
C.听懂 Pease repeat it. I didn’t quite catch you.
Do you catch my meaning?
D.染上 He caught a bad flu.
E.（出其不意地）撞上、碰上 She caught him smoking.
Some boys were caught stealing flowers from the garden.
F. 给撞上、碰上 The ship was caught in a hurricane.
One night we were caught in a thunderstorm.
Hurry up and don’t get caught in a storm.
catch at sth. 想抓住、设法抓住
catch sb. by surprise出其不意抓住
catch/get/seize/take hold of…（突然）抓住、抓牢
catch sb’s attention/eye吸引某人注意
catch sight of…看到、发现
catch the point of…抓住…的要点
catch up with…赶上…
A. aux. v.
They do not believe it. When id they arrive there?
I do miss you, Mum. She does sing well.
Do be on time. So she did come after all.
---May I come round in the evening? ---Yes, please do.
I knew he would help us, and he did.
Only then did I realize he had been wrong.
Never did he know anything about it.
B. 做 vt. Can I do anything for you?
We often do our homework together.
The glass is broken. who did it?
We did some reading last night.
She did most of the talking.
C. vi. (1) 表示生活、学习等情况How do you do?
They did very well in English but badly in maths.
How did you do in the exam? How are you doing?
(2) 行了、够了、可以On e piece of bread will do.
Talking with your mouth full won’t do.
(3) 做、办 Do as you are told to.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
Let her do as she likes.
do…with…处理 What have you done with my bike?
can do with…将就用 I can do with the old bed.
do something about…对…采取措施
do sb. a favor=do a favor for sb.帮某人个忙
do away with…废除、破除、去掉
do sb. good/harm/wrong= do good/harm/wrong to sb. 对某人有益/有害/冤枉某人
do one’s best/ bit/part=do everything/all/what one can尽力
have something to do with…与…有关
1. vt. 期待、预料、等待It’s what we’ve expected.
Is this the letter you have been expecting?
We expect to finish the work by Friday.
I expect that they will drop in.
I expect you to make more progress.
---Will he be back tonight? ---I expect so.
You arrived earlier than we had expected.
as (is/ was/ has been) expected不出所料
They came late again, as was expected.
expect too much of sb.对某人期待过高
A. (1) vt Do you feel any pain when I press here?
Facing this situation, they felt both joy and fear.
(2) link v. I don’t feel very well today.
The busier he is, the happier he feels.
The desk feels smooth.
(3) vt. 接复合宾语 I felt someone go upstairs.
I felt a great weight taken off my mind after the exam.
She felt their eyes watching her when she came to the stage.
She felt herself (to be) right.
I felt it my duty to help you.
He felt it necessary to talk about his own shortcomings.
(4) vt. 宾语从句
He felt strongly that we should take some action about the bad practice.
B. vt. 摸 He felt the pot and it felt very hot.
feel like doing sth.想要
feel one’s way摸索前进
feel sb’s pulse切脉
feel as if/ as though感觉似乎
She felt as if she were a member of the family.
feel quite oneself 觉得身体很好
A. vt. (1) 发现
I found a wallet on the street corner yesterday.
He found her in danger.=He found that she was in danger.
I found him (to be) a tough guy.=I found that he was a tough guy.
This method was found to be practical.=It was found that the method was practical.
I find it interesting to read these stories.= I find that it is interesting to =read these stories.
I found a dog killed in the park.= I found that a dog had been killed in the park.
I found a man breaking into a warehouse.= I found that a man was breaking into a warehouse.
Have you found the book you have been looking for?
find one’s way to sp.设法赶到；进入
They found their way to the front of the crowd.
The news found its way to a lot of people.
find fault with sb. 对某人吹毛求疵；挑剔
They found themselves in a difficult situation.
Then I found myself surrounded by some boys.
He found himself walking in the direction to the park.
A. vt.得到、弄来 Where did you get these good ideas?
Let me go get the doctor.
Will you get me a ticket?=Will you get a ticket for me?
He got a poor wage. Let’s get something to eat.
A rumor(谣传) got around that Fu Biao was ill in hospital.
I wonder how to get my new ideas across.
get ahead of…领先
get away from…避免、摆脱、离开
get down to (business/ work/ studies)认真做
get to know/ realize/love/like逐渐地了解/爱上
News got out that you were leaving.
get rid of…消灭、摆脱、除掉
The students are going to get up a concert on May Day.
have got to=have to不得不
10.give vt. 给
Who is going to give the talk?
He was given a good beating last night.
give in to sb./ sth.屈服于；对…让步
give oneself up to doing sth. 献身于、专心于
give way to sb.让步；让位于
As winter gave way to spring, days were getting longer.
give sb. a hand帮某人忙
give rise to导致
A. vi. 走 He has gone back home a newspaper.
Pride goes before a fall.
B. link v. He went hungry for a week.
His face went pale when he heard the news.
This guy went wild/ crazy/ mad after the loss of his wife.
Don’t ever eat the bread. It has gone bad.
go along向前发展 We’ll learn as we go along.
go back on one’s word/ promise失信
go back to…追溯到
This custom goes back to Roman times.
go all out全力以赴
go and do sth.= go to do sth.
go down on one’s knees跪下
go in for喜爱；从事
go on to do sth.接着做（另一件事情）
go on doing sth.继续做（同一件事情）
go on with sth. .继续做（同一件事情，可以有间隔）
go over sth.浏览；复习；审阅
go shopping/ fishing/ skiing/ skating/ begging/ boating/ swimming/ fox hunting/ sightseeing/ mountain climbing
go from bad to worse每况愈下
go from door to door
Gone are the days when we studied together happily.
have a go试一下
go out of one’s way to do sth. 不辞辛劳去做…….
go to hell见鬼去吧
go to sleep睡着
go through with….把…….进行到底
go well with…与……相配/协调
Sometimes they went for days without washing their faces.
句型1 have sb./ sth. do sth.
Let’s have them stand facing the wall.
句型2 have sb./ sth. doing
We had the fire burning all night.
I won’t have you talking to your dad like that!
句型3 have sb./ sth. done
I will have my radio fixed. He had his wallet stolen.
句型4 have sth. to do I have a letter to write.
句型5 have to do sth. I have to get up early every day.
与动词同行的名词连用，表示动作：have a talk with…
have a look/ glance/ glimpse at
have a meeting/ discussion/ operation/ haircut
have an English lesson
have a swim/ wash/ rest/ try/ smoke/ taste/ dream/ walk
have a cold/ cough/ headache/ pain
have lunch/ some beer
have a good/pleasant/ tough/ bad/ hard/ difficult terrible time
They had a hard time solving the problem.
have fun=have a good time/enjoy oneself
have a word/ a few words with sb.与…谈话
have words with sb.与…吵架
have something/ nothing/ a lot to do with…
have sth. on穿着（状态）
had better (not) do sth.最好；不得不（迫于客观原因）
have something with sb.随身携带
have a baby生小孩
have a test/ talk/ speech/ lecture/ chat
have had enough of厌倦
have sth. back要回
have one’s own way按照自己的意思办；我行我素
have sth. to oneself完全由自己使用
You can have the house entirely to yourself.
A. vt. 帮助 They did everything they could to help us with our lessons.
This medicine will help you (to) get better.
She helped (to) sweep the floor.
B. vi. 有帮助；有用；好用
This medicine won’t help. Thinking will help.
help sb. with sth. 帮助做
help sb. out of trouble帮助某人脱离困境
can’t help doing sth.禁不住……
cannot help/ choose but do sth.只好……
help sb. out帮助结局难题； 帮助摆脱困境；救出
turn to sb. for help求助于……
be of help有帮助；有用
Holding my hand, he tried to calmed me down.
Hold the line, please.
容纳 How much water can the tank hold?
拥有；占有 He held the position for years.
举行 Chinese film weeks will be held in other places.
hold…down 控制； 镇压
hold…in memory 记住
hold on to…抓住不放
We must hold out, and the enemy will give up.
They were ready to hold out a friendly hand.
hold to sth.紧紧抓住；坚持（路线、道路、看法等）
The storm held us up, so we were late for the meeting.
Their wages were help up or reduced for no reason.
A. vt. (1)保留 I’ll keep a seat for you.
He has a large family to keep. He keeps some chicken.
(3)使……处在……状态 Sorry to have kept you waiting.
Let’s keep the door open but keep the windows closed.
You must keep us well informed.
Mr. Xue always keeps us busy.
Close the door to keep the cold out.
Let’s keep the room in order.
B. link v. 保持
We must keep fit.=We must keep in good health. Keep calm in time of danger.
keep a record of登记；记录
keep a secret保密
keep one’s promise/word履行诺言
keep the law/rule遵守法律/法规
keep birthday/ Christmas庆祝生日/圣诞等
keep body and soul together维持生活
keep sb. doing sth. 使…….坚持做
keep sth. to oneself把……据为己有
keep sb. from doing sth. 阻止；使免于；抑制
keep hold of…抓住不放
keep …in mind记住
keep doing sth. 继续做；不断地做
keep on doing sth. 不停地做;反复地做
keep out of…不参与
keep sb. company与某人做伴； 陪伴某人
keep to sth.坚持；固守（习惯等）
keep in touch with…与保持联系
keep up with…跟上
A. vt.(1)知道 I have known him since childhood.
(2)懂得 Do you know Japanese?
be known as…通称为；以著称；被认为是
be known for…因而出名
be known to sb.为某人所了解
become well known出名
for all/anything/ everything I know 据我所知
It is well known that…众所周知
know about/ of了解；知道
know sb. by name仅知道某人的名字（不认识）
know sb. by sight与某人面熟（不熟悉）
know/learn …by heart背诵
know/ tell right from wrong辨别是非
know no limits是无限的
A man’s life is limited, but service to the people knows no limits.
A. vi.离开；离去When are you leaving?
He left in a hurry without telling anyone.
B. vt.(1)留下 She asked us to leave our address.
Sorry to have left some questions unanswered.
He left the window open.
She left the baby crying bitterly.
The illness left him rather weak.
(3)剩下 We have only three months left.
leave A for B离开A去B
leave hold of…放弃；松手
leave nothing to be desired尽善尽美
leave room for留下……余地
A. vt.让 She doesn’t let her child play with fire.
B.用于祈使句 Let’s go to the Summer Palace, shall we?
Let Peter do the job, will you?
the baby can’t even walk, let alone run.
let…down使……失望;放下 I won’t let myself down!
let…go释放；松手 Let go of me!
A. vi. 看 He looked happily at his great grandchildren playing about him.
B. link v.看起来 He looks cheerful and carefree.
have/take a look a…看一看
have a look of…好像；仿佛
look about for…四下寻找
look as if…似乎；好象
look away from…转移目光
look back on/ upon…回忆；回顾
look down on/ upon…俯视；蔑视
look forward to doing sth. 期待；展望
He looked in on Mr. Smith on his way to work.
He went to look in at the fish farm.
look on A as B 认为A是B
look out向外看； 注意；警戒
look out for…提防
look …over审阅； 翻阅
look through…透过……看去; 彻底调查；从头看到底
look up to sb. 尊敬/仰望某人
look sth. up查阅
look sb. in the eye/ face直视某人
A. vt.(1)做；制造 Cell phones are made in this factory.
make a study of= study
make use of= use
make an examination of= examine
make an explanation of= explain
make a fool of=fool
make fun of
make a suggestion= suggest
make an attempt= attempt
make an answer= answer
make a decision=decide
make preparations for=prepare for
make a guess at=guess
make a speech
(3)使（做）；使（成为） He made us work day and night.
We were made to work day and night.
Praise make good men better and bad men worse.
We made you our monitor.
What made you so frightened?
This machine makes it possible for us to finish the work in a short time.
He made it a rule to get up at six every morning.(规定)
(4)有条件成为 She will make a good housewife.
Cold tea makes an excellent drink in summer.
be made from由……原料制成
be made of由……材料制成
be made out of由……制成
be made up of由……所组成
be made into被制成……
be made to do sth. 被迫去做
make for=head for =make towards走向；冲向
make oneself understood/heard使自己被理解/听到
make a living谋生
make ends meet应付开支；维持生活；使收支相抵
make friends with与……交朋友
make one’s way to sp.向……走去
make room/ way for为……让路
Make sure that you get there in time.
We must make certain they will come in time.
make the best/most of尽量利用；充分利用
make up one’s mind决心；决定
to make a long story short长话短说
make sb.’s hair stand on end使……毛骨悚然
make a fire生火
A. 更喜欢；宁愿 vt. He preferred apples to bananas.
I prefer to go by air.
Which do you prefer, rice or bread?
I would prefer she do it in another way.(虚拟语气)
B.习语 prefer doing A to (doing) B 宁愿做A，不愿做B
I prefer watching a football game to playing football.
=I would rather watch a football game than play football.
prefer to do A rather than (do) B 宁愿做A，不愿做B
Liu Hulan preferred to die rather than give in to the enemies.
A. vt. 放 He put the book where he found it.
put an end/a stop to sth.结束；消灭
put sb. at ease使某人放心、安心、宽心
put A through to B把A接通B（电话）
put up with…忍受
put sb. to bed打发睡觉
put sth. to/into use使得以应用
put in a word for sb.为某人进言
put sb. in charge使某人负责
put sth. in order使井井有条
put on airs摆架子
put sb. to death/test处死/考验
A. vi. (1)跑 They came running to meet us.
(2)行驶 The train was running at 80 miles an hour.
(3)流 All the rivers will run into the sea.
We mustn’t let the water run to waste.
His nose is running all day because he has a bad cold.
B. vt. 管理；经营 They have run six factories.
He runs the school well.
C. link v. 变得 The river began to run dry.
Our food supply is running low.
His blood ran cold at the news.
Their money is running short.
The garden was running wild.
run a fever发高烧
run after sb./ sth.追求
run out of…用完（某物）
run short of…短缺（某物）
run up to…合计为；高达
run a risk冒险
run ahead of…领先于
run away with…带……而逃走
run over溢出； run over….过目；浏览
A. vt. (1)看到；看见
I saw the accident with my own eyes.
I’ve never seen you look so well.
Just now I saw someone going upstairs.
When we got there, we saw a house being built.
Last night I saw a dog killed by a car.
I’m glad to see all of you happy.
I could see that they need my help.
*The year 1949 saw the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
I went to see a friend of mine last Sunday afternoon.
I’ll be seeing you this evening.
(3)了解；明白Now you see what I mean?
He asked to look and see if he missed anything.
see sb. home送某人回家
see about sth.负责处理……
I’ll see about the tickets for the concert.
see much/a lot/nothing/little of…常/很少/从不见到
see sb. off送行
see sb. through支持某人到底
see to sth.处理；料理 There was much to see to.
He has to see to the luggage.
see to it that…注意做到；务必要
See to it that you do not fall when skating.
as far as I can see踞我所知
see sb. out送某人出门
A. vt.(1)寄（信），发（电报） They sent me some pictures.
I have a telegram to send to Bob.
(2)（派人）送 Let’s send the radio there to be repaired.
He sent his regards to you.
(3)派遣 He asked to be sent to work in Tibet.
(4)使…….变得 The bad news sent him mad/ out of mind.
The sight of the Red Army sent the enemy running in all directions.
send A for B派A 去请B
send…forth发出 The sun sends forth light and heat.
send sb. away解雇；逐出
A. vi. 下落 It will be cooler when the sun has set.
B. vt.(1)放置；摆设 She set the dish on the table.
Let’s set the clock by the radio signal.
(2)规定；确定 He set a strict rule for himself.
Have they set the time for the meeting?
With only a few words he set us laughing.
What he said set me thinking.
He set all the prisoners free.
That set all our doubts at rest.这消除了我们所有的怀疑。
set about doing sth.= set out to do sth.开始做
set an example做出榜样
A room has been set apart for the purpose.
set fire to sth.= set sth. on fire放火烧
set foot in…进入；踏上
set one’s mind/ heart on…下定决心
He set out his reasons for what he had done.
set… to work使开始工作
He set to work at once writing the book.
He set everyone to work together.
A. vt. (1)拿给人看 Show me your ticket, please!
Can you show me a bigger one?
(2)说明；表明 Her eyes showed that she was lying.
Show us how to use this machine.
That shows how ignorant we are.
(3)表现；显露 He showed courage in face of danger.
(4)放映；展出 A new film is being shown at this cinema.
(5)带领 Show them in, please.
I’ll show you into my room.
This guy likes showing off.
I don’t like the way he shows off his knowledge.
show one’s face 露面
His anger showed itself in his voice.
This only served to show up their weakness.
A. vi.说；发言 He spoke with me about his childhood.
He was too hurt to speak to us.
I’ve never spoken of these things to anyone before.
He spoke at the meeting yesterday.
Action speaks louder than words.
She spoke in broken English.
B. vt.说 She speaks good French.
Trust me that I am speaking the truth.
I can only speak for myself.
speak out against…发言反对
He spoke out against what he thought was unjust.
speak highly/well/highly/ill/badly of…称赞/非议
generally/strictly/broadly/roughly/frankly speaking=to speak generally, etc.一般来说，严格地讲，广义地讲，严格地讲，老实地说
be spoken of as…被说成为
nothing to speak of…不值一说；没有说的价值
A. vi. (1)站 Come and sit by my side if you love me.
(2)立于 The house stands between the two large trees.
There stood a strange man right behind me.
B. vt. (1)放Stand the ladder against the wall.
If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.
They all stood against the war.
stand at attention/ease立正/稍息
stand behind sb. 支持
We’ll stand by you through thick and thin.
You mustn’t stand by and do nothing about it.
X often stands for an unknown number.
We stand for self-reliance（自力更生）.
stand on one’s own feet依靠自己
Her talent stood out in comparison with the others.
A. vt. (1)拿 Taking a sheet of paper, she began to write.
(2)带（往某处） After that she took us to Rome.
Take a little more bread. He took some medicine.
(4)乘坐 They took a taxi home.
(5)采取，接受，选择He took a doctor’s degree.
After lots of thinking, she took the job.
(6)测量；照（像）；记录Let me take your blood pressure.
We took a few pictures of the hill.
(7)对待；接受 You cannot take this too seriously.
(8)需要How long does it take to finish washing these dishes?
(9)攻下 They took the town by surprise.
take a chance碰碰运气
take one’s seat坐下；就座
take a turn for the better好转
take a vote表决
take advantage of利用；占便宜
take aim at…瞄准
take part in…参加
take A as B当成
take care 当心
take care of…照顾；负责
take charge of…负责
take delight/ pleasure/ interest /pride in…喜欢、以……自豪
take A for B=take A to be B认为A是B
Some students take it for granted that English is easy to learn.
take hold of…抓住；握住
take it easy别紧张；放开些；放松些
take note/notice of…注意；留心
take one’s time从容从事；慢慢来
take pains/trouble to do sth.不辞辛劳地做
take the chair主持会议
take the place of…代替
take turns to do sth.= take turns in doing sth.轮流做
take warning from…引以为戒；吸取教训
be taken ill/sick生病
take a short cut走捷径
A. vi. 谈话；讲话
He is talking loudly in the front of the classroom.
talk back (to sb.)还嘴；顶嘴
talk sb. into doing sth.劝说干
talk sb. out of doing sth. 劝说不干
talk to sb.与谈话；责备
A. vt. （1）告诉；讲 Tell me your name.
He told us what had happened to him.
I’ll tell you what to do next.
Don’t tell me. Let me guess.
Do as you are told to.
(2)判断I really can’t tell the differences between them.
I can hardly tell Kate from her twain sister.
=I can hardly tell Kate and her twain sister apart.
tell A and apart= tell A from B区分开A与B
to tell the truth说老实话
tell sb. about/ of sth.向某人讲起……
tell the world…公开讲；宣扬
tell a lie说谎
tell a white lie说善意的谎言
tell it like it is实话实说
there is no telling…难以预料
There is no telling when he will return.
I’ll tell you what.让我告诉你真相/怎么去做。
Never tell me!别瞎扯了！
You are telling me!还要你告诉我（我早知道了）！
A. vi.想，思考Give me some time to think.
He told us to try to think in English.
I never thought you could complete the work so soon.
I don’t think I can get away now.
Where do you think we can get this book?
She isn’t as slow as you think she is.
I think the book worth reading again.
This kind of computer is thought (to be) too hard to operate.
We all think her a good learner.
I thought it our duty to offer them some medical care.
I think it a great honor to speak here.
This picture made us think of the days in the army.
He couldn’t think of anything to say.
She is always thinking of others.
She is thinking of going downtown this afternoon.
What do you think of this movie?
think highly/ well/ a lot/ a great deal/ much/ poorly/ ill/ badly/ little/ nothing of对评价高/低
think of A as B认为A是B
think twice before…要三思后再……
Just think of the price!
wouldn’t/couldn’t think of…绝不能考虑/想象（做这样的事） I couldn’t think of disturbing them at this our of night.
A. vi. 转弯，转身,转动 The planet turns round the sun.
I turned and saw a boy running away.
B. vt. (1)转向，转动 Please turn your eyes this way.
Nothing can turn us from our purpose.
The doctor turned him over and looked at his back.
C. link v.变得 Her face turned pale at the news.
His hair is turning grey.
The weather suddenly turned cold.
Later he turned doctor.
turn a deaf ear to sth. 不听；不理睬
turn a blind eye to sth. 不看；不理睬
They turned a deaf ear to the people’s sufferings.
They turned a blind eye to our demands.
turn A into B把A变成B
The day turned out fine. He turned out to be a traitor.
It turned out that he had never been there.
turn one’s back on…对不理睬
turn one’s head使头晕/昏
turn one’s stomach使作呕
I turned over the keys to Mr. Smith.
He turned over all the tables in anger.
He turned over one page or two and gave up.
turn to sb. for help/advice求助于
turn up露面, 出席
He turned up the dictionary and found the explanation.
turn…upside down/ inside out颠倒， 翻过来
A. vi. （1）工作
He was forced to work from morning till night.
Soon the machine worked a gain smoothly.
His method worked.
It’s a good idea, but it won’t work.
The treatment works like magic.
She is busy working a new invention.
work away 不停地干
work on…从事 We’re working on some wood-cuts.
work on…对起作用；激发 work with…对……行得通
A. vi.来She is coming in no time. Here comes the soup.
He came running all the way.
He has come to love the stories by William Shakespeare.
He has come to realize the importance of good English.
B. link v. His dream finally came true.
come by… 获得
How did you come by these pictures?
come down with…患（病）
come (in) first/second得第一/二
come forward 前进；自告奋勇；涌现
come from… 出身于；来自
come in/ into sight出现；被看见
come into being/ existence发生；产生；出现
come into effect/ force开始生效；开始实施
come into power/ office上台；掌握政权
come into use 开始使用
come out against… 起来反对
come out with… 讲出；泄露（秘密等）
come to= come to oneself苏醒过来
come to …总计；谈到
His earnings comes to $182,000 a year.
When it comes to football, everyone likes David Beckham.
come a conclusion得出结论；告一段落
come to a stop/ an end停止
come to nothing毫无结果；失败
come to the point说到要点；抓住关键
1) (vt. & vi).(为…)服务，(为…)服役，任(职)，供职
serve the people为人民服务。
serve in the army在军队服役。
He once served under the king他曾经在那个国王的手下供职。
2) (vt. & vi).侍/伺候，接待，为……端上
The waiters serverd the customers with red wine. 侍者为客人上红酒。
serve tea after dinner. 饭后上茶。
Lunch will be served at 12:00. 12点开饭。
The housemaid served at the table. 女仆在桌边伺候。
The manager of the restaurant has trained the waitress to serve correctly at table.
3) (vt. & vi)（对……）有用，符合，适合，满足，用作
The tool serves many purposes.这个工具有多种用途。
Is this enough space to serve your needs?这个空间够你用吗？
Serve as a model 作为榜样
That big box may serve as a table.那只大箱子可作桌子用。
The meeting will serve to develop bilateral relations between two countries.
4) (vt.) 向…供应, 提供,
The river has served the village with water for hundreds of years.
The company will serve a meal at noon to all staff workers.
The restaurant serves nice food.这家饭馆供应的饭菜不错。
5) (vt.) 度过(某段时间)
She served two years in prison for theft. 她因偷窃服了两年刑。
Serve one’s apprenticeship.做学徒。
6) (vt. & vi) （发）球
It’s my turn to serve. 轮到我发球了。
38. work （vt. & vi）.
He's been working hard all day. 他辛劳地工作了一天。
She works as a bus driver. 她的职业是公共汽车司机。
Mary works for a publishing company. 玛丽在一家出版社任职。
work at a new invention 从事一项新的发明
work one's way through college 靠做工读完大学
All the telephones don't work properly today. 今天所有电话机都出故障了。
Do you know how to work this machine？
work a farm 经营农场
Does anti-wrinkle creamsreally work？抗皱霜真的有用吗？
If the scheme works in practice, most of the farmers in this area will be rich.
The sea works high. 海浪汹涌起伏。
work an abacus 打算盘
work wonders 创造奇迹
work a sweater 织毛衣
work at/on 从事于，致力于；努力做
work off 消除，去除
work out 解决；算出；弄懂，理解；想出，制定出
work up 激发，激起；制订出，精心做出
39. grow （grew，grown）
To plant, grow, or yield a crop. 种植谷物，生长谷物，生产谷物
This farm grows mainly flowers and vegetables. 这个农场主要种植蔬菜和花卉。
The farmer has grown the seed a big tree. 这个农民种下的种子长成了大树。
They mainly grow wheat, corn, barley and oats. 他们主要种植小麦、玉米、大麦和燕麦。
In this flat country，people grow rice and raise cattle
2) (vi.) 生长, 发育develop
Plants grow naturally. 植物自然地生长。
Babies grow very quickly. 婴儿长得很快。
The crops are growing well. 庄稼长得很好。
3）（vi. & link v.） 渐渐变得 get，become，turn
The company has grown rapidly in the last five years. 这家公司近五年来迅速发展壮大。
She's growing to like him better. 她渐渐地更喜欢他了。
You've changed a lot.You have grown big boy. 你变了许多, 已经长成大小伙子了。
The dispute grow warm. 争论变得热烈起来。
The path grew more obscure in the fading light. 小径在渐渐消失的光线下变得更暗了。
You will grow wiser，as you grow older 随着你年令的增长, 你会变得更聪明。
In autumn leaves of trees grow yellow. 树叶在秋天渐渐变黄。
1) (vt. & vi.) 付给; 付款
This job pays well. 这份工作报酬不错。
They had to pay rather heavily. 他们得付出沉重的代价。
I have paid the milkman this month. 我这个月付款给送奶人了。
He ought to pay the rent. 他应该付房租。
We refused to pay them their wages. 我们拒绝付给他们工资。
Do you pay interest on that account? 那种存款付给利息吗?
2) (vt. & vi.) 有利可图; (对…)有利, (对…)值得
Crime doesn't pay. 犯罪得不偿失。
It pays to advertise. 登广告很有用。
It will pay him to listen 听…对他有利
Telling lies does not pay. 撒谎不值得。
Wisdom is a good purchase though we pay dear for it. 为了求知识，代价虽高也值得。
It will pay to read a dictionary if you have time. 如果你有时间，翻翻词典是值得的。
Can you make it pay to take such pains to do this job? 你这么费心做这事，值得吗？
Tom searched for gold many years before he found pay dirt.
It will pay in the long run if the setting off of firecrackers is effectively banned in the cities.从长远来看，在城市里真正有效地禁放鞭炮，是值得的。
3) (vt.) 给予
The manager paid her a compliment on her work. 经理赞扬了她的工作。
To pay honor to. 给予巨大荣誉
To give maximum (very close) attention to给予极大的注意
If the investment is very big, we pay the biggest preference according to the actual circs.
The Employer should pay appropriate post allowance to the laborers engaged in the occupational-disease-inductive operation.
His pay goes up every year. 他的工资每年都有增加。
The trade unions bargained away their rights in exchange for a small pay rise.
I get a good pay. 我的工资很高。
They are striking for higher pay . 他们罢工要求增加工资。
The staff want a pay rise. 全体职员希望增加工资。
1) (vt. & vi.) 递送, 交付; 送货; 传送, 运载, 运输
The telegram was delivered early this morning.这份电报是今天清晨送到的。
The postman delivers letters.邮递员投递信件。
He delivered them the goods.他给他们送来了一些货物。
2) (vt.) 发言; 发表；宣布；发布
Mr. Smith delivered the opening speech.史密斯先生致开幕词。
3) (vt.)助产, 接生
The midwife delivered her sister.那位助产护士给她妹妹接生。
4) (vt.)发动, 提出
The enemy is going to deliver an attack during the dry season.敌人准备在旱季发动攻势。
I delivered a verbal protest against their brutal acts.我对他们的暴行提出口头抗议。
to deliver on one's pledge (or promise)
6) (vt.) 射出，喷出；排放；放出，排出(液体、气体等)；提供，供给
The oil well delivers 300 barrels a day.这口油井日产原油300桶。
7) (vt.) 放弃；转让；引渡；移交，交出，交付(over，up)
6. inspire (vt.)
1）fill someone with confidence, eagerness, etc.鼓舞，激励
Patterns：(1) to inspire sb./ sth (to do sth )
(2) inspire + sth. + in sb. = inspire + sb. + with + sth. 激起某人的……
His speech inspired the crowd.他的演说鼓舞了群众。
to inspire enthusiasm.振奋精神，to inspire one's fighting will 激励斗志
The moving story inspired the dying patient with the will to live on.
A good play serves to educate and inspire the people. 好剧目可教育人也可鼓舞人.
This will inspire them to further efforts to win economic independence.
His words will forever inspire us to forge ahead courageously.
Martin Luther King, Jr.’s speeches inspired people to fight for equal treatment of
To inspire and enlighten the future generation 启迪后人
To inspire their creativity. 激发他们的创造力。
You inspired me by playing the piano so beautifully.你优美钢琴曲激发了我的灵感。
The mind will not only deduce, speculate, and comprehend, but it will also awaken,
will, enlighten and inspire.
This paper tries to inspire Chinas urban design本文以期对我国的城市设计有所启迪。
【同义词】★(v.) inspire, encourage, motivate, stimulate, promote, excite, arouse, urge, spur, enlighten鼓励、鼓舞；启迪、刺激
42. ensure (vt.) make certain that sth. will occur or be the case
1）pattern 1：ensure sth.
Close cooperation will ensure better progress in our business.
Preparedness ensures success. 有准备, 成功就有保证。
Implement the policy of readjustment,ensure stability and unity.
Close cooperation will ensure better progress in our business.
Can memorization only ensure high marks in examinations?
2）pattern 2：ensure sb. sth.
.A letter of introduction will ensure you an interview. 一封介绍信能保证他们接待你。
Hard work combined with luck will ensure you a place in society.
3）pattern 3：ensure that-clause
I will ensure that the car arrives by six o'clock. 我保证汽车六点钟以前到。
Ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion 加强舆论监督
The client must ensure that accurate records are kept.
We guarantee to be here tomorrow.我们保证明天来。
I guarantee you'll enjoy yourself.我保证你会过得很快活。
Can you guarantee me a job when I get there?
We can guarantee it pure.我们可以保证它的纯度。
His turning up will guarantee the success of the meeting.他一出席, 会议便成功在望。
（n.）1）保证, 保障; 保证书; 保用期
Payment Guarantee 付款保证书，Guarantee period 保质期，
Guarantee of insurance 保险担保书
Can you give me your guarantee that the goods will be delivered before Friday?
This guarantee is valid for one year.这份保证书有效期为一年。
If I try to borrow 10, 000 from the bank, will you be my guarantee?
What guarantee can you offer? 你能拿什么作抵押?
[同义词]★assure，ensure，insure，promise，guarantee，pledge 保证, 担保
44. create (vt.)
to create disturbances 制造动乱，to create friction 制造摩擦，
to create tension 制造紧张局势，to create “backdoors” “开后门”，
to create a sensation 耸动视听, to create a fashion创造时新式样，
to create the wealth of society创造社会财富，
to create opportunity for fighting创造战机，
to create favourable conditions创造有利条件
God created the world. 上帝创造了世界。
A novelist creates characters and a plot. 小说家塑造人物并设计情节。
To create a disturbance by making a great noise. 制造大声响引起骚动。
Create genuine products and services! 创造货真价实的产品与服务！
Failed to create temporary freeze file. 创建临时记忆文件失败。
Create a default form module. 创建一个预先设定的表格模块.
Create a digital feedback loop 创建一个数字化反馈循环系统。
It’s bound to create trouble sooner or later. 迟早注定要引起麻烦。
The project will create up to 40 new jobs. 这项工程将提供40个新的工作岗位。
His arrival created a terrible confusion. 他的到来引起一场大乱。
If she leaves her husband, she will certainly create a scandal in the village.
【构词】creation (n.)创造，creative (a) 有创造力的，creativity (n.)创造力，
【同义词】★(v.) create, compose, design, invent, make, produce制造；生产
45. convince (vt.)
【同】assure, guarantee 【反】doubt, suspect, disbelieve, discredit
Patterns：convince sb. that … 使某人相信某事
convince sb.of sth. 使某人相信某事
I am convinced that he is honest. 我深信他是诚实的。
We couldn’t convince him of his mistake. 我们无法使他明白他的错。
Compulsion will never result in convincing them.强迫永远不会使他们信服。
His words convinced me of his innocence. 他的话使我相信他无罪。
It took many hours to convince the court of his guilt.
We could not convince him that he was wrong . 我们无法使他明白自己错了。
The best way to convince a fool that he is wrong is to let him have his own way.
【构词】conviction (n.) 说服；信服；convinced (a) 确信的，信服的；
convincible(a) 可被说服的；convincing (a) 令人信服的；
46.concentrate (vt. & vi.)
I can't concentrate when I'm hungry.我饿了就无法集中精力。
concentrate one's energy 集中精力
concentrate on studies 潜心研究
concentrate a superior force 集中优势兵力
concentrate on crucial points 抓住重点
The general decided to concentrate his forces near the capital.
An acid solution is concentrated when it has very much acid in it.
1) May I ask you a question?
I have something to ask you.
Jack asked me how to start the machine.
She asked what time it was.
I asked only out of curiosity.
Tom went to ask about the train.
If you don’t understand, ask.
I’m going to the workers to ask their advice.
He asked Joe to get in touch with them.
He was asked to see them off.
C.邀请 vt. They asked us over their dinner.
They often ask him out to sea.
D.习语 ask about…询问、打听
ask sth. of sb. 向某人问