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短文改错解题技巧           ★★★
短文改错解题技巧
作者:佚名 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2016/11/26 16:18:48

    短 文 改 错 解 题 技 巧

      “短文改错”题是各类考试中的一个重要题型。尽管该题难度不大,但仍有一些同学在做此类题目时不得要领,因而得分甚少。本文结合高考试题(出处被略去),对“短文改错”题中的常见错误加以分析,从中找出命题者设置错误的规律并介绍一些解题技巧。

                                  一、“短文改错”题中的常见错误类型                             
      (一) 名词方面的错误 
      名词方面的错误多指名词单复数形式的误用,可数名词与不可数名词的错误,名词所有格中“’s”的误置等。例如: 
      1. He had no ideas that the kitchen was not for guests. 
      2. In summer, the sea under the blue skies is even more beautiful. 
      3. ... you’ve been settled down in Boston and are getting used to the local ways of life. 
      4. ... but she marked strictly on student’s actual performance ... 
        
  (二) 动词方面的错误 
      动词错误在短文改错中所占比重最大,它所涉及的错误包括动词的时态、语态错误;易混动词的用法错误;动词的第三人称单数错误;动词的非谓语形式,以及动词的句型搭配错误等。在改错题中,动词方面的考查比例较大。例如: 
      1. The air keeps the balloon up was escaping quickly and the balloon ... 
      2. I just want to thank you for helping me becoming a different person. 
      3. How about join us? The camp is at the foot of a small hill. 
      4. I’ll send my friend Charlie meet you at the airport. 
   
  (三) 形容词、副词方面的错误 
      这类错误多指误用形容词修饰形容词,误用副词修饰名词,误用形容词修饰动词,误用形容词或副词的原级、比较级和最高级以及误用带-ly的副词与不带-ly的副词等,特别注意根据上下文该用比较级而未用的“暗中比较”。例如: 
      1. They came back lately and had some tea. 
      2.... you always gave me specially attention ... 
      3. ... they fly down immediate and catch them without delay. 
      4. Yes,it is clearly that your life in your country is quite different from ... 
      5. I know you are particular interested in Human Rights. 
      6. Last year, my English teacher proved to be the more popular in our school. 
      


      (四) 连词方面的错误 
      短文改错中出现连词就要判断连词用的是否正确,是否符合句子意思;连接的是词还是句子,是否符合逻辑关系。此外如果是平行结构就要注意前后时态、语态、词性一致问题平行结构常借助与并列连词and, or, but, not only…but also…, …not…but…, either…or…, neither …nor…, as well as等,though不与but连用,because不与so连用等。
      1. It started to rise higher again. So it was still too close to the water. 
      2. I became very active but made new friends. 
      3. My hometown is a pretty city, so people there are kind and polite. 
      4. While they find fish come to the surface, they fly down immediately. 
      5. Both your aunt or I look forward to seeing you again. 
      
    (五) 代词方面的错误 
      这类错误主要包括形容词性物主代词与名词性物主代词的误用,关系代词、连接代词的误用,代词主格与代词宾格的误用,代词单数与代词复数的误用,各个不定代词之间的误用,反身代词与代词宾格之间的误用,代词的指代错误,定语从句中多用代词等。
      1. ... the men threw away most of his clothes to save themselves. 
      2. a lot of white birds come to my city for food. I can wait patiently above the sea for quite a long ... 
      3. If he spends most of his time playing about in the way that he used to as a child,they will go hungry. 
      4. That night, we sat down to what they thought would be a pleasant, uninterrupted ... 
      5. I just smiled to me and thought ... 
      6.... your life in your country is quite different from me. 
      7. Everybody sleeps in tents, that is very exciting. 
      
  (六) 介词方面的错误 
      这类错误多指漏掉介词、多用介词或介词与其他词语搭配的错误等。例如: 
      1. The crowd waiting for to greet them in England was very surprised ... 
      2. He was looking for a glass the cupboard. 
      3. After autumn arrives,the city looks as an old man with leaves ... 
      4. ... he can no longer expect others to pay his food, his clothes ... 
      5. On the front door stood a five-year-old boy from across the street. 
      6. Could you share your experience for us? 
      7. My mother was a career woman and had her own problems to take care. 
      

(七) 冠词方面的错误 
      这类错误多指a(n)与the的误用,a与an的误用。有时也表现为:单数可数名词前面该用冠词的地方缺少冠词,不该用冠词的地方多了冠词。例如: 
      1. An American and a Frenchman decided to cross the sea between France and England in the balloon in 1784. 
      2.... the popular teacher is at same time the one who should be strict with ... 
      3. And if he breaks the law of society ..., he may go to the prison. 
      4.... so we will have plenty of spare time to visit the area and have a fun. 
    
  (八) 时态、语态方面的错误 
      这类错误主要为现在时态与过去时态、主动语态与被动语态的误用。做题时,应注意把握文中动词时态的呼应规律,注意把握诸个并列动词的时态、语态的呼应规律。例如: 
      1. We had guests last night who have not stayed in a B&B hotel before. 
      2. Today,I got a letter that said I had been admitting to a college. 
      3. We hung a sign on the front door that was read: “We’re having dinner ...” 
      4.... sometimes all that is need is someone to rely on. 
      5. I’ll send my friend Charlie to meet you at the airport when you arrived. 
  
(九) 主谓一致方面的错误 
      这类错误主要指主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词形式的错误。因此做题时,要注意谓语动词的形式要和句子主语在人称和数上保持一致。例如: 
      1. “I just want to know what the sign say.” 
      2. Anyone can borrow books if he or she wish. 
      3. Here are the information about Manchester University. 
      4. What may surprise you are that I’m going to ... 
   
(十) 短语、句型固定搭配错误
      主要考查介词与动词、名词、形容词的固定搭配;副词、动词的固定搭配;及物动词后多介词或副词以及不及物动词后少介词,英语中的一些固定句型与习惯搭配等。
      1. My teacher advised me to keep my diary. keep a diary是固定搭配,意思是“写日记”.
      2. In my surprise, he did very well in his previous job. To one’s surprise 是固定搭配
      3. I thought that was dull to watch a game… 此题考查it的功能,It be adj. to do为固定结构。
                                                      二、解题技巧                                                   
      要想做好“短文改错”题,不妨试试分成“四步走”,遵循“四原则”,实施“四查法”。具体做法如下:  
      (一) 分成“四步走”
      1. 通读全文,了解大意。注意语篇结构和行文逻辑。不能在不了解文章大意的情况下,逐字逐行地进行修改。 
      2. 先易后难,缩小范围。在通读全文的过程中,可以先把文中明显的错误找出来改正,然后再根据具体语境,仔细分析判断,将注意力集中在较难的句子上。 
      3. 把握句意,逐行判断。可依据“动词形,名词数,注意形和副;非谓动词细辨别,习惯用法要记住;句子结构多分析,逻辑错误须关注”的口诀行事。 
      4. 再次通读,复查验证。把大部分错误改正之后,如果还有拿不准的地方,就应再次通读全文,并利用语感来做最后的判断。 
      纵观近几年的“短文改错”题,正确的地方只有一处;多词和缺词的地方约有3处;用错词的地方一般有6个,且多为动词。这种比例或许也能帮助你做出最后判断。


   
  (二) 遵循“四原则”
      1. 改动处以最少为原则。“短文改错”题要求每行只能改动一处,改动的方法可以是增词、删词或换词,但无论作何种改动,只能是增加一词、减少一词或把一个词改成另一个词。当然,没有错误的行无需改动。也就是说,每行改动之处不能超过一个。 
      2. 实词以改变词形为原则。在“短文改错”题中,一般只是改变实词的形式,而不能改变实词的词义,也不能将其改换成另一个实词,更不能随便增删。例如: 
      ① The air keeps the balloon up was escaping quickly and the balloon ... (把keeps改为keeping) 
      ② Yes, it is clearly that your life in your country is quite different from ... (把clearly改为clear)
      3. 虚词以添加或删除为原则。历年的“短文改错”题中需要添加或删除的地方差不多有3至4处。这些需要添、删的词一般都是虚词(如冠词、介词等),不是实词(如动词、名词等),否则会改变句子的原意。例如: 
      ① They did not want breakfast because that they were going out early ... (删去that) 
      ② He was looking for a glass the cupboard. (the前面加in) 
      4. 以保持句子原意不变为原则。做“短文改错”题时,一般不应改变句子原意。改错时,应该针对短文中的用词错误、语法错误、逻辑错误加以改正,不应更改作者的原意。做到换词不改意,加词不增意,去词不减意。如有多种改法,应以保持原意为条件,择其佳者而从之。例如:
      But I have spent most my money, so I cannot… 改正:在my前加of。也有同学去掉most,这种改法虽改正了语法错误,但改变了原意。作者想说的是“花掉了大部分的钱,而不是全部”。

 

  (三) 实施“四查法” 
      1. 左顾右盼查名词。考生应注意搜寻名词之前及其本身出现的错误,还要看该名词前面是否缺限定词、该用何种限定词,尤其要查名词前冠词的使用情况。当名词前面有形容词修饰时更要加倍注意。例如: Your knowledges of Greece can help the whole class. (把knowledges改为knowledge) 
      2. “语(态)”、“时(态)”俱进查动词。考生应认真分析动词时态、语态的使用是否正确,尤其要根据上下文所提供的时间信息,仔细推敲,从而选用正确的动词时态形式。例如: 
      (2006天津) I gained so much confidence that I go back to school ... (把go改为went) 
      3. 启承转合查连词。若要使文章结构严谨,应在文中使用各种启承转合的连词。这些连词能使文章在结构上和意义上通顺流畅。例如: 
      It started to rise higher again. So it was still too close to the water. (把So改为But) 
      4. 文通理顺查逻辑。“文通”指行文合乎英文词法、句法;“理顺”指行文逻辑符合人们普遍认可的道理。例如: (NMET 2006) The air keeping the balloon up was escaping quickly and the balloon was coming up. (把第二个up改为down) 
      总之,要想做好“短文改错”题,除了掌握上面讲的原则、做法、步骤之外,平时还要加强语言基础知识的学习,多做有针对性的训练。(不能为空)



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