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英语独立主格结构分析讲练           ★★★
英语独立主格结构分析讲练
作者:佚名 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2016/11/26 16:20:16

   独立主格结构分析讲练

独立主格结构(Independent Genitive)
  独立主格结构有两部分组成,前一部份是名词或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词或其他的一些词。前后两部分具有逻辑主谓关系。独立主格结构在句中做状语,多用于书面语。

独立主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语。
 
  常见的独立主格结构有如下几种:
1. 名词/主格代词 现在分词。名词/主格代词与现在分词之间主谓关系。如:
The girl staring at him(= As the girl stared at him), he didn’t know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。
Time permitting (= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。
 
2. 名词/主格代词 过去分词。名词/主格代词与过去分词之间的动宾关系。如:
The problems solved (= Asthe problems were solved), the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。
Her glasses broken (= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn’t seethe words on the blackboard. 由于眼镜摔坏了,她看不见黑板上的字。
 
3. 名词/主格代词 不定式。名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系,且强调的是一次具体性的动作。如:
He is going to make amodel plane, some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。
They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to thebookstore. 他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书店。
 
4. 名词/主格代词 形容词。如:
An air accident happenedto the plane, nobody alive. 那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还。
So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。
 
5. 名词/主格代词 副词。如:
He put on his sweaterwrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。
The meeting over, they all went home. 会议一结束,他们就都回家了。
 
6. 名词/主格代词 介词短语。如:
The boy goes to theclassroom, book in hand. 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。
Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door. 玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。
 
7. There being 名词(代词)如:
There being nothing elseto do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。
There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。
 
8. It being 名词(代词)如:
It being Christmas, thegovernment offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。
 
  独立主格结构的特点:
1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系。
3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。
 
  举例:
The test finished, webegan our holiday.
= When the test wasfinished, we began our holiday.
  考试结束了,我们开始放假。
The presidentassassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
= After the president wasassassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
  总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。
Weather permitting, weare going to visit you tomorrow.
  如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。
Work done, we went home.
  工作完成后,我们才回家。
The meeting gone over,everyone tired to go home earlier.
  会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。
He came into the room,his ears red with cold.
  他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。
He came out of thelibrary, a large book under his arm.
  他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆
  注:独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词with。
  如:Don’t sleep with thewindows open. 别开着窗睡觉。
He was lying on the bedwith all his clothes on. 他和衣躺在床上。
She came in with a bookin her hand. 她手里拿着一本书走了进来。
He fell asleep with thelamp burning. 他没熄灯就睡着了。
I won’t be able to go onholiday with my mother being ill. 因为妈妈有病,我无法去度假。
He sat there with hiseyes closed. 他闭目坐在那儿。
All the afternoon he workedwith the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里工作。
I can’t go out with all these clothes to wash. 要洗这些衣服,我无法出去了。
 
  使用独立主格五点注意:
1.独立主格与状语从句的转换当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时,可用独立主格结构取代状语从句,但不再保留连词。如:
After class was over (=Class beingover / Class over), the students soon left the classroom.下课后,学生很快离开了课室。
2. 不能省略being(having been)的情形在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being(或having been)不能省略。

(1) 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如:It being Sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天,我们去了做礼拜。

(2)在Therebeing+名词的结构中。如:There being no bus, we had to go homeon foot.因为没有公共汽车,所以我们不得不步行回家。

3. 通常不用物主代词或冠词在“名词(或代词)+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构中,一般不用形容词性物主代词和冠词。如: Miss Smith entered the classroom, book in hand.史密斯先生走进了课室,手里拿着一本书。
比较with的复合结构。如:Miss Smith entered the classroom, with a book in his hand.

4. 独立主格结构没有所有格形式The chief-editor arriving, we beganthe meeting. 主编来主编来了,我们开始开会。

 
  独立主格结构的用法
  独立主格结构相当于一个状语从句或并列句。
1. 用作时间状语:The work done (=After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后,我们就回家了。
2. 用作条件状语:Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to thebeach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。
3. 用作原因状语:An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture willbe given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。
4. 用作伴随状语:He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and hishands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。
5.表示补充说明:We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。
 
 
  独立主格结构妙题赏析
  请看下面一道题:
Not far from the schoolthere was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his littlegrandson every afternoon.
A. its B. whose C. whichD. that
【分析】此题很容易误选B,许多同学会认为句中逗号后是一个非限制性的定语从句,whose在定语从句中用作定语修饰其后的名词 owner。此分析从表面上看,似乎天衣无缝,但实质上是错的,原因是空格后根本不是一个句子,因为没有谓语。尽管句中有两个动词,但它们都是非谓语动词。也许有的同学认为,其中的 seated 可视为谓语动词,但是注意,seat 用作动词时,它总是及物的,其后要么接宾语,要么它就用于被动语态,所以若在 seated 前加上助动词 is,则可以选择B(当然若将 seated 改为sitting,也应选择B)。所以此题最佳答案选A。
 
  请再看一个类似的例子:
(1) He wrote a lot ofnovels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages.
A. it B. them C. this D.that
(2) He wrote a lot ofnovels, many of _________ were translated into foreign languages. A. it B. themC. which D. that
第(1)应选B,而不能选C,是因为句中的 translated 是过去分词(非谓语动词),若选C,则该从句无谓语;第(2)应选C,因为句中有谓语 were translated。
 
  再请看下面一例:
(3) He wrote a lot ofnovels, and many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.
A. it B. them C. which D.that
【分析】此题与上面的第(2)题不同,两句间多了一个并列连词and,说明这是一个并列句,故应选B,则不能选C。
 
  请做做以下三题(答案均为B):
(1) There I met severalpeople, two of _________ being foreigners.
A. which B. them C. whomD. that
(2) There I met severalpeople, two of _________ were foreigners.
A. which B. whom C. whoD. that
(3) There I met severalpeople, and two of _________ were foreigners.
A. which B. them C. whomD. that
 
 

如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为if weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。
 
注意: 
1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题:
 当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
 a robber burst into the room, knife in hand.
 ( hand前不能加his)。      
2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分 词,不及物动词用过去分词。
 He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.—— 不空



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