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with复合结构与独立主格结构           ★★★
with复合结构与独立主格结构
作者:佚名 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2016/11/26 16:21:38

  with复合结构与独立主格结构
    
一、  with复合结构是由“with 复合宾语”组成,常在句中做状语,表示谓语动作发生的伴随情况、时间、原因、方式等。其构成有下列几种情形:
带介词的复合结构
 【——with复合结构】
He was asleep with his head on his arms.
The teacher came into the classroom with a book in his hand.
We sat on the dry grass with our backs against the wall.

带现在分词的复合结构
I won’t be able to go on a holiday with my mother being ill.
With winter coming on, it’s time to buy warm clothes. (As winter comes on, it’s time tobuy warm clothes.)

注意:with和as都译为“随着”,但是with为介词,后接分词结构;as为连词,后接从句。
Ann fell asleep with the light burning.
With the price of gold going up,South Africa’s economy was good.■

       常见的“with 复合宾语”结构主要有以下几种形式:
1.With 名词 分词/分词短语

在这种结构中,名词作with的宾语,分词充当宾语补足语。判断用现在分词还是过去分词,应根据名词与分词之间的关系。如果名词与分词之间是主动关系就用现在分词;若名词与分词之间是被动关系,则用过去分词。

With so many people communicating in English every day, it willbecome more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.有那么多的人天天用英语交流,熟练掌握英语会变得越来越重要。
The thief was forced into the post station with his hands tied back.贼被双手捆绑着带进了派出所。

2.With 名词 不定式
在这种结构中,名词作with的宾语,不定式充当宾语补足语,表示尚未发生的动作。此结构中不定式与名词之间存在动宾关系,但不定式多用主动式。

With a lot of homework to do, I can’t play football with my friends.有这么多的作业要做,我不能跟朋友们踢足球。

With many things to deal with, I have to work day and night.有许多事要处理,我不得不夜以继日地工作。
3.With 名词 介词短语/形容词/副词
With的复合结构除了可以在名词后面接非谓语动词外,还可以接介词短语、形容词或副词等。
Don’t stand with your hands in your pockets.
站着的时候别把双手插在口袋里。
She saw a small river with green grass and red flowers on bothsides.她看到一条小河,两岸长满了红花绿草。
She sleeps with the window open.她爱开着窗户睡觉。
Tian An Men Square looks even more beautiful with all lights on.所有的灯都亮着,天安门广场显得更加漂亮。
 
二、独立主格结构

       非谓语动词作状语时,它的逻辑主语应该是句子的主语。但有时非谓语动词带有自己的主语,从而在结构上与主语不发生关系,我们称之为独立主格结构。其实,所谓“独立主格结构”也并非真正独立,它还是一种从属的结构。在独立主格结构中,非谓语动词和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关系。
独立主格结构主要表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况等,在许多情况下相当于一个状语从句或并列句。

1. 用作时间状语
The work done (=After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后,我们就回家了。
2. 用作条件状语
Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outingto the beach tomorrow.
如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。
3. 用作原因状语
An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecturewill be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night.
因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。
4. 用作伴随状语
He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=andhis hands were crossed under his head). 他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。
5. 表示补充说明
A hunter came in, his face red with cold (=and his face was red withcold).
一个猎人走了进来,他的脸冻得通红。
We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。
注:独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放在句首,表示原因时还可放在句末;表伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并列句,通常放于句末。
 
不定式“独立主格结构”
       在“逻辑主语 动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构也可用一个从句或并列分句来表达。
An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecturewill be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night.
He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help.(借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。)
They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go tothe bookstore. (他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书店。)
 
-ing形式“独立主格结构”
Everyone being ready, the teacher began his class.(Everyone being ready相当于一个时间状语从句When everyone was ready)
The chairman began the meeting, everyone being seated. (The chairman began the meeting相当于一个时间状语从句after everyone was seated)
The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strangecave.
(The boy leading the way相当于一个原因状语从句Because the boy led theway)
Many eyes watching him, he felt a bit nervous.
(Many eyes watching him相当于一个原因状语从句As many eyes werewatching him)
Time permitting, we will have a picnic next week.
(Time permitting相当于一个条件状语从句If time permits)
My health allowing, I will work far into the night.
(My health allowing相当于一个条件状语从句If my health allows)
The students are walking in the school happily, each wearing a cardin front of his chest.
(each wearing a card in front of hischest相当于一个并列分句andeach wears a card in front of his chest)
The boy lay on the grass, his eyes looking at the sky.
(his eyes looking at the sky相当于一个并列分句and his eyes were lookingat the sky)
含有being的独立主格结构:
It being National Day today,the streets are very crowded.
= As it is National Day today, the streets are very crowded.
There being no further business to discuss, we all went home.
= As there was no further business to discuss, we all went home.
There being nothing else to do, I went to bed. (表示原因)
There having been no rain, the ground was dry. (表示原因)
There being another chance, I’ll do it better.(表示条件)
下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being(或having been)不能省略:
独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。
It being Sunday, we went to church.
在There being+名词的结构中。
There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.
 
-ed形式“独立主格结构”
与逻辑主语 动词的-ing形式一样,如果-ed形式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致的话,就需要用-ed形式的独立主格结构。
The book written in simple English, English beginners were able to readit.
(独立主格结构在句中作原因状语,The book written insimple English相当于一个原因状语从句 Asthe book was written in simple English)
He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on theblackboard. (独立主格结构在句中作方式状语)
= He was listening attentively in class, and his eyes were fixed onthe blackboard.
他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。
The task completed, he had two months' leave.
(独立主格结构在句中作时间状语,The task completed 相当于When the task had been completed,he had two months’ leave.)
 
独立主格结构三种形式比较
动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed形式表示动作已经结束,动词-ing形式往往表示动作正在进行。
The manager looks worried,many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处理。(事情还没有处理,而且是由经理本人来处理,用不定式to settle)
The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了,经理看上去很轻松。(事情已经处理好了,用动词-ed形式settled表示动作已经结束)
The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭,一边看电视。(两个动作同时进行)
The food cooked, the boy went to bed. 饭做好了,小孩去睡了。(两个动作有先后,饭已做好,小孩才去睡觉的)
 
名词/主格代词 形容词。
An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive.(那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还 。)
So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. (这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。)
 
名词/主格代词 副词。
He put on his sweater wrong side out. (他把毛衣穿反了。)
The meeting over, they all went home. (会议一结束,他们就都回家了。)
 
名词/ 主格代词 介词短语。
The boy goes to the classroom, book in hand. (男孩们进了教室,手里拿着书。)
Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door. (玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。)
 
独立主格特点
独立主格结构没有所有格形式。
The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting. 主编来了,我们开始开会。
(比较动名词复合结构:Thechief-editor’s arriving made us very surprised. )
独立主格结构作时间或原因状语时,可用完成时,表示该动作发生在谓语之前。
The listeners having takentheir seats, the concert began. 听众坐好后,音乐会开始了。
Tom having been late over andover, his boss was very disappointed.
由于汤姆一再迟到,他的老板非常失望。
某些表示说话人态度的一些惯用分词表达,它们在用作状语时其逻辑主语可以与句子主语不一致。
Generally speaking, women live longer than men. 一般说来,女人比男人活得长。
Judging from what you say,he ought to succeed. 从你的话看,他应当能成功。
Considering the distance, he arrived very quickly. 考虑到路程,他到达得很快。
Taking everything intoconsideration, you should leave. 考虑到各种因素,你最好离开。
当分词已转化为介词或连词,此时也无需考虑主语一致问题。
Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do? (supposing为连词,意为“假若”)
Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. (given为介词,意为“考虑到”)
当分词暗含的逻辑主语为表示泛指意义的one或you时,也无需考虑主语的一致性问题。如:
In doing such work, patience is needed. (=When one does such work,patience is needed.)
 
状语从句和独立主格结构的转换:
当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时,可用独立主格结构取代状语从句,但不再保留连词。
After class was over (=Class being over/Class over), the studentssoon left the classroom.
After the work had been done (= Thework done), we went home.
It being Sunday (= Because it is Sunday), you needn't go to school.不空



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