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高考英语被动语态考点总结           ★★★
高考英语被动语态考点总结
作者:佚名 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2016/11/26 16:22:13

  被动语态考点总结
         被动语态的基本构成、八种时态的被动语态构成、使用情况以及语态变换中应注意的问题。
 

   1. 被动语态中谓语动词的基本构成:

   be done

   2. 八种时态的被动语态:(变 be 的时态即可,done不动)


   1)一般现在时:am / is / are done

   ①People grow rice in the south of the country.

   →Rice is grown in the south of the country.

   稻米在这个国家的南部被种植。

   ②The school doesn\'t allow us to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher.

   →We are not allowed to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher.

   我们不被允许在没有老师的情况下进入化学实验室。

   2)一般过去时:was / were done

   ①They agreed on the building of a new car factory last month.

   →The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month.

   建立一个新的汽车工厂在上个月被一致同意。

   ②The students didn\'t forget their lessons easily.

   →Their lessons were not easily forgotten.

   他们的功课没有被轻易遗忘。

   3)一般将来时:will be done

   ①They will send cars abroad by sea.

   →Cars will be sent abroad by sea.

   汽车通过海路被送到国外。

   ②They will give plenty of jobs to school-leavers.

   →Plenty of jobs will be given to school-leavers.

   大量的工作将被提供给中途辍学者。

   4)一般过去将来时:would be done

   ①The manager said they would complete the project by the end of the year.

   →The manager said the project would be completed by the end of the year.

   经理说这项工程将会在年底被完成。

   ② The workers told me they would mend the car as soon as possible.

   →The workers told me that the car would be mended as soon as possible.

   这些工人告诉我这辆汽车将尽可能快的被修理。

   5)现在进行时:am / is / are being done

   ①The radio is broadcasting English lessons.

   →English lessons are being broadcasted on the radio.

   英语课正在通过收音机被广播。

   ② We are painting the rooms.

   →The rooms are being painted.

   这些房间正在被刷油漆。

   6)过去进行时:was / were being done

   ①The workers were mending the road.

   →The road was being mended.

   这条公路正在被修理。

   ②This time last year we were planting trees here.

   →Trees were being planted here this time last year.

   去年这个时候,这些树正在这里被植。

   7)现在完成时:have / has been done

   ①Someone has told me the sports meeting might be put off.

   →I have been told the sports meeting might be put off.

   我已经被告诉会议可能会被延迟。

   ②He has brought his book here.

   →His book has been brought here.

   他的书被带到了这里。

   8)过去完成时:had been done

   ①When I got to the theatre, I found they had already sold out the tickets.

   →When I got to the theatre, I found the tickets had already been sold out.

   当我到达剧院时,我发现票已经被卖完了。

   ② The whole country was very sad at the news of his death; people had considered him to be a great leader.

   →The whole country was very sad at the news of his death; he had been considered to be a great leader.

   整个国家听到他死亡的消息都很悲痛;他被认为是一个伟大的领袖。

   3. 含有情态动词的被动语态:情态动词 be done

   ①You must hand in your compositions after class.

   →Your compositions must be handed in after class.

   你的作文必须在下课之后被上交。

   ②He can write a great many letters with the computer.

   →A great many letters can be written with the computer by him.

   很多信能够被他用计算机写。

   4. 被动语态的使用情况:

   1)当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,这时往往不用by 短语。

   “Mr. White, the cup was broken after class. ”

   怀特先生,这只茶杯是下课后被打碎的。

   2)突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作的执行者,用by 短语。

   These records were made by John Denver.

   这些报道是被约翰·丹佛做的。

   5. 主动语态变被动语态的方法:

   1)把主动语态的宾语变成被动语态的主语。

   2)把主动语态的谓语变成被动语态的be 过去分词,时态要与原句保持一致。

   3)把主动语态的主语变为介词by 的宾语,放在被动语态里谓语动词之后,by 短语可以省略。

   My aunt invited me to her dinner party.

   →I was invited (by my aunt ) to her dinner party.

   我被(我阿姨)邀请到她的晚宴。

   The school set up a special class to help poor readers.

   →A special class to help poor readers was set up in the school.

   在学校,一个帮助贫困阅读者的特殊的班级被建立。

   6. 语态转换时应注意的问题:

   1) 把主动语态变为被动语态时,其谓语动词的时态要与原句时态保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。

   We have bought a new computer.

   →A new computer has been bought. (正确)

   →A new computer have been bought. (错误)

   一台新的计算机已经被买了。

   2)含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时,可分别将其中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个不动,一般变间接宾语为主语时比较多。

   My uncle gave me a present on my birthday.

   →I was given a present on my birthday.

   我在生日时被给了一个礼物。

   如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接宾语(指人)前加适当的介词,如上句还可以说

   →A present was given to me yesterday.

   一个礼物昨天被给了我。

   3) 由动词 介词或副词构成的短语动词,要把它们作为整体看,即把它们看成一个及物动词,介词或副词不可拆开或漏掉。

   The patient is being operated on.

   病人正在被进行手术。

   The problem is solved. It needn\'t be talked about.

   问题呗解决了。它不需要被谈论了。

   His request was turned down.

   他的请求被拒绝了。

   The sports meet will be put off because of the bad weather.

   由于恶劣的天气,运动会将会被延迟。

   4)带复合宾语(宾语 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时,一般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面。

   We always keep the classroom clean.

   →The classroom is always kept clean.

   这间教室总是被保持干净。

   She told us to follow her instructions.

   →We were told to follow her instructions.

   我们被告诉要遵循她的指示。

   注意:在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带 to,但改成被动语态后必须还原to。

   We often hear him play the guitar.

   →He is often heard to play the guitar.

   他经常被听到弹吉他。

   5)当主动句的主语是nobody, no one等含有否定意义的不定代词时,被动句中将其变为anybody, 作by的宾语,并将谓语动词变为否定的被动语态。

   Nobody can answer this question.

   误:The question can be answered by nobody.

   正:The question can not be answered by anybody.

   这个问题不能被任何人回答。

   6)当否定句中的宾语是anything, anybody, anyone等不定代词时,在被动句中应将其分别变为nothing, nobody, no one作主语,并将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。

   They haven\'t done anything to make the river clean.

   误:Anything hasn\'t been done to make the river clean.

   正:Nothing has been done to make the river clean.

   没有什么可以被做来使河流清洁。

   7)以who为主语开头的疑问句,变被动时,用by whom放在句首。

   Who wrote the story?

   误:Who was the story written?

   正:By whom was the story written?

   这个故事是被谁写的。

   8)有些动词既是及物又是不及物,当它们和well, badly, easily等副词连用时,表示主语内在品质或性能,是不及物动词,用主动表示被动,这时不用被动语态,常见的有:write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook 等。

   The cloth washes easily. 这布很好洗。

   The new product sells well. 这新产品很畅销。

   The books sell well. 这些书销量很好。

   9)下列情况主动句不能改为被动句。

   ①感官系动词一般用主动形式表示被动意义,如:feel,look, seem, taste, sound。

   — Do you like the material? 你喜欢这种材料吗?

   — Yes, it feels very soft. 是的,它摸上去非常柔软。

   ②不及物动词没有被动语态,如:rise, happen, succeed, remain, lie等。

   When we got to the top of the mountain, the sun had already risen.

   当我们到达山顶的时候,太阳已经升起来了。

   After the earthquake, few houses remained.

   地震后,几乎没有房子剩下来。

   ③宾语是反身代词,相互代词,同源宾语,不定式,v-ing形式及抽象名词等,不能变为被动句子的主语。

   I taught myself English.

   误:Myself was taught English.

   We love each other.

   误:Each other is loved.不空



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